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A. Good evening. Welcome to another edition of Front Street weekly Oregon Public Television's news magazine. I'm going to gamble boo. I'm Jim Swenson and here's what you'll see on tonight's show. Later on you'll meet calligrapher Joyce Graf one of the few artists nationwide to master the techniques of illuminating manuscript. As you know Goldsmiths been private the last few years but now he goes public.
I think we grow up honoring and understanding that a government is valuable. We have fair amount of respect for it but people in Oregon are very self-reliant they don't really want to government doing everything for them. But up first tonight the law enforcement officers in this country are walking a fine line. Police are killed while on duty and a staggering number are assaulted. Recently officers across the country have been accused of using too much force. Just how much force is necessary to make an arrest and how do they find a balance between keeping the streets safe and protecting themselves without hearing the cry of brutality. Well reporter Steve LaBelle looks at this dilemma. Another good thing. It is a no win situation for the officer on the street. On the average
every day in this country two people are killed by the police but the police say they are involved in thousands of instances which become violent confrontations. Justice Department information shows 92 officers were killed on the job in 1982 and some 55000 were assaulted. State Law Enforcement Academy officials tell recruits of another pitfall of the profession. During their career. One in four officers can expect to be sued over the use of force. Nationally the internal departmental investigations run in the tens of thousands on you all the most charges being unfounded. You combat force with like force. In other words don't overreact to a verbal situation when all you have to use is rebel control. So when we teach that you don't overreact to the situation that any force use must be justified.
The National Commission on Accreditation for law enforcement agencies sets no standard for the use of intermediate force. The standards address only the use of deadly force. Each agency is able to determine its own policy governing the use of intermediate force. The standards are only clear in the discussion of the use of deadly force and in fact point the officer must reasonably believe that either life or personal injury either to self or someone else is at stake. In Portland the police internal investigations audit committee looked into 51 complaints against the bureau in the last two and a half years. Twenty nine involve charges of excessive use of force. The suspect determines the amount of force that the officer is to use or the proper response. Because the bottom line
is that the the person being arrested at any point during the confrontation merely has to say OK I give I quit I will go with you I will do what you you request. In Oregon all police and sheriff's department. Must attend a law enforcement academy for two months of training classes include defense tactics and the laws governing the use of force. There are six levels regarding the use of force during an arrest. They range from the mere appearance of an officer and verbal commands to serious physical force and deadly force. Officers say the classroom training is beneficial but there are no textbook cases on the street. Obviously one of the most important tools a police officer has his brain. And as far as resolving situations his ability to talk and to discuss is probably the single most valuable tool that he has to keep him out of a violent confrontation. Officers agree there is safety in numbers a call for backup is the best
defense to avoid the use of force. Still some officials believe only the officer displaying some weapon can defuse a confrontation stun guns have been touted as a strategic panacea. We thought it would be a good answer to. To neutralizing violent subjects without having to do any serious injury. Hansen and others claim the unit doesn't work on some people to use the stand and you have to commit yourself and go in to try to shock someone right above the racist. If you committed yourself in that manner and you go in with your hand and it doesn't work then you're very vulnerable. Manufacturers of the Nova technologies of Austin Texas claim it is safe and reliable operation of the weapon is based on the theory of jumbling all the electrical impulses in the body. Although the Lincoln City Police Department is giving up on the stun gun aggression policeman will add it to their arsenal.
Discovery of the police brutality scandal in New York City has boosted the sale of the stun gun. Paradoxically the California distributor of the gun says that is so because the victims did not suffer permanent injury. The public is concerned that the use of intermediate force such as the stun gun may result in more incidents of abuse. On the other hand police are concerned about potential lawsuits and being the targets of violent offenders. I think it is critical that what technology can do to people. Sleep nationally even the most contemporary statutes passed by some states give police wide discretion about the use of force. Police are in a predicament. Make the arrest. Protect yourself. But hurt no one. Just about every law enforcement agency
investigates incidents of strong physical force. Not only the department but each officer comes under scrutiny. But apparently there's enough public concern growing now that these other forms of restraints are coming into question. The officer has become reluctant to use adequate force in order to get the job done. And the longer I don't it doesn't matter how good you are the longer you have to fight or wrestle with someone the odds increase that you're going to be injured when police are compelled to use force. They are routinely reviewed in most modern jurisdictions. If thoughtful and practical guidelines are in place it helps everyone needs to know the rules. Without solid training and review procedures the level of danger increases for everyone. Long before the printing press books and manuscripts were reproduced individually by hand and many manuscripts were decorated by an illuminator. This
highly skilled artist unused gold and bright paints to create elaborate letters and miniature pictures. Well today calligrapher Joyce Graf employs the techniques of elimination to create new works similar to those that appeared in handmade manuscripts during the middle ages. For Joyce Graf is firmly rooted in the 20th century but she creates art in the style of work done in 14th and 15th century England and France. Graf is an illuminator who uses gold along with paints in inks in making illuminated manuscripts. She's extensively studied the elements of design as well as the actual techniques necessary to produce modern works in traditional styles. The.
Inlaying gold a special base is necessary for the gold to adhere to. She makes this base from a 12th century recipe. The gold itself is little changed from the substance used for centuries by monks during the middle ages. This is 24 karat gold leaf that's been pounded them. It's very easy. Very easy. And. When you begin to burnish it you get really excited because when you put it on it looks down and when you burnish it the shine comes out. Then it begins to sparkle and then when you put the color next to it you really get excited. The line between past and present blurs as Graf works while the designs are her own. She utilizes traditional patterns that she's learned during 20 years of study. I would not change the patterns. I mean I think you can improve on that. The apex was reached in the 15th
century and they never improved on that. I use the patterns that were developed by the English and the French. Because those are my favorite areas to work in. I take the patterns and I mean my pattern is the way they would use a spray of ivy. Are the way they would place. Flowers. Are a combination of those things. The Border. Patterns that were used and. What you do is you take these things. And you try to reproduce. Not reproduce you try to produce a piece. That gives the flavor of the traditional. Presentation by the English or by the French or the Germans who are your pattern your eat whatever pattern using and still. Maintain a contemporary flavor and that some of them
don't work that way no matter what you do their own and they're still beautiful and you love them. Graf seldom exhibits her work but in 1984 she recalled a number of commissioned pieces from private homes to show them at Ben's frame design gallery. Sandra Miller initiated that exhibit she co-owns the gallery with her husband Miller has been excited about grass work since the first example she saw a gallery owner has taught art history and studied medieval art at the National Art School in Sydney Australia and in Europe. She appreciates crafts work for its direct ties to the past. What's important for me is it's carrying on a very important tradition in this. It is keeping alive the integrity of the human expression and creative human expression in a pictorial form. And the fact that Joyce has taken the mediæval illumination and made it her
own and managed to make it valid in the 20th century is very important. Elimination. Is basically the first letter. Of a Bible. Or a book about was. Was created in the medieval time the Dark Ages. By monks. Who the only ones who kept the heritage. Of. Literature. And. Writing. And learning alive who knows why the monks put the gold on there as a chance to enhance the beauty of the life. For the grace of God. Because there are. Patrons who are very wealthy and want the best. Because gold. Reflected light. And in those days you didn't have any electric lights or anything like that it was candle light lamps. And as soon as the lamp light would flicker over the surface of these they would be illuminated and stand out very beautiful. The fact that she's taken
something that was nearly dead and revived it I think is very important. Graf explains that the invention of the printing press nearly extinguished the art of illumination along with the need for hand lettering in bookmaking. The letters were developed gradually and by the 13th century they were set and in the style that they are now and also in the 13th century the book arts you know moved out of the monasteries into the secular world. And these workshops didn't have time to design letters anymore. So they used the letters that had already been designed and they used them for three hundred years it wasn't until the 16th century that calligraphers again began to design letters. But by that time it was too late because that printing a movable type had been designed and was working and the manuscript the handmade
book was on its way out. I didn't have anything to do. With bringing CAUSLEY back and that came from the mind. I do like to think. That some time. Someone will pick up when I have time. And run with it because I'm not going to be. Around her. And I pick these beautiful. Patterns to work with. Because I. Didn't think it was fair that they should die. Joyce Graf shares her knowledge of illumination with anyone willing to learn she's taught on and off for years at the Oregon school of arts and crafts. And this summer Graf is releasing a book that explains how to lay gold intended as a reference for calligraphers and gilders the manual will be available from the press of Tigard. You know Jim I was interested in seeing how she uses a plastic straw to channel the moisture from her breath
in the elimination process right to the gold. Well she uses modern materials and modern techniques but she the result is that traditional look that traditional finish. It's beautiful. Well since joining the private sector a few years ago former Portland mayor and Carter cabinet member Neil Goldschmidt has kept a low profile. Now there's some speculation the goldsmith may run for governor of Oregon next year. We talked with him about his public and private sector experience and his possible political future. As a member of the Carter Administration did you find it an advantage or a disadvantage coming from Oregon. I think we grew up in Oregon understanding that a government is valuable. We have fair amount of respect for it but people in Oregon are very self-reliant they don't really want the government doing everything for them. I always wondered what it would be like being in Washington in a place in which people come to you depending on you to do things. And I think being there I discovered that
being from Oregon probably was an advantage in the sense that we tend to think that there are other ways to do things besides have the government do it. We have a legislature that isn't paid to do it full time. There's this tradition of public service involved in a part time legislature and it's true for our school boards and for our city councils for the most part all over the state. And I think it was an advantage. How will history view Jimmy Carter. I think it's a little early to say what they're going to say about Jimmy Carter I really thought he did a lot of right things in the area in which I worked I think it's fair to say the inflation rate is down a great deal today because of the deregulation of railroads of airlines of trucking and of oil. But I think currently the perception is that he didn't give a feeling of strength and he didn't deliver a clear message about where we were going. And history isn't treating him right now very kindly you know Oregon today where is the Democratic leadership. Well this is. It's a state in search of.
Good things. It's not much of a state in search of Eastern politics. I think for most Oregonians that the open primary and. Easy access the way we mean it to be easy to public education both at the college and high school and grade school level. Has always been more important to us than political organization. There haven't been many periods in our history since certainly since World War Two when either party has been very meaningful in the life of its citizens. In my political party if you go to the state legislature and look at some of the young talent that has been elected I think that the president of the Senate John Kitzhaber and the speaker of the House of Representatives Fira cats have had and are having one of the best legislative sessions in history even by the. By the judgment I think of their peers who are in the Republican Party. You have said about the but part victory here in Portland that it shows that in Oregon anyone can be elected. Would you comment on that please.
I think really the point was divided in half. One of them is that those of us that are in public office who have served there are always reminded by the Oregon voter that we don't own the job. It's something that you when you think about it is the right way for it to be. It's very different here than it is in a lot of places. Voters really do control the people they send into public office. The second thing is that I think we do not have quite such a large predisposition. To assume you can't if you don't have certain credentials. Bud was one of the best neighborhood activists we have ever had in the city. He's somebody who expressed his commitment to public life in Portland by delivering meals on wheels to shut in elderly people or cooking food in his in his business for people on Thanksgiving when programs weren't serving food to people.
And I think his race proves that if you want it and you're willing to hustle for it and you have a vision about the way things ought to be people will hear you know former Portland mayor has ever been elected governor in the state of Oregon. That's right. Why would you say that's true. I think first of all that the mayor's job is to some extent a burial ground. It is by the way in my view the best education in public life anybody could ever get. But I think we have to realize when you run for a job like that you have to want to do that job and not worry about it too much beyond. And I think that shows when you try to run for other offices I think the second thing is that it is very obvious that people have always felt in this state that Portland was a big bully that it got everything it wanted and really disregarded the needs of other people. Will you run for the governorship here in Arkansas. I started a rumor that I was interested in what I am doing now is
for the first time since 1976 considering a race for myself I've campaigned for other people for the president for the candidate to my party last time I worked on a library Levering in Portland but I haven't been out campaigning on my own. And I think if you've ever done it you understand that. It's different than talking about it and I won't make a decision about whether to do this until I find out two or three things one can I do it and feel good about it. Second it is the people that I'm coming in contact with reacting in a way that would allow me to. To develop support and to build the kind of community commitment to my candidacy that if I were lucky enough to be elected I could actually get something done. And the third thing and maybe the most important of all is going through some of this how the Marquis and Josh and Becca react to it if they come away feeling it can be done and still have family time and still participate in the children's activities and Marg and I still have time together then. It's something we could consider
if trying it out makes it clear that I can't manage my life well enough to. Do it and still keep the family happy then there's no chance they'll be a campaign. When will you make that announcement. Well for the for the good of the process I'd like to do it as soon as I can because if I'm cluttering up the traffic then somebody else who might be a good candidate might be thinking maybe they won't run. I've given myself from now to the Fourth of July and the company is allowing me to spend some of my vacation time to go out and talk to people and look around. I think that if I can arrive at a decision that it's possible by the 4th of July that. We will go to a second stage which is to ask people if they would actually help between the 4th of July and Labor Day and if we're the early fall and and then it's a little hard to say I'm. Still got lots of things to do here so whatever it is it's not going to take most of my time I mean I was still
working at Nike and I don't believe it ought to take full time the elections are a long time away. If you do run what do you consider the main issues and how will you address them. Let me take you back. The issue is how do we feel about this place. I was born here in 1040. I have lived most of my life here although I've had the chance to live overseas and do some other things. The more you are away and the more I mean when you come back the more you feel like there's something very unique here and it isn't just physical. I think because of those feelings you come away with a fairly short list of questions. If we mean to rely on our intelligence to succeed in the next 25 years. In the in the world that is coming alive. Are we really investing in our kids and ourselves that we need to to train ourselves to be ready for it. And I think the answer is probably not. I think education will become the central issue for our success probably in the next 50 years. I suppose the second
thing I would say is. We have lived off of our natural resource base almost since the state was discovered. We've cut the trees and dam the rivers and done whatever we had to do in order to support the progress that we wanted to achieve. We've arrived at a time when it isn't clear that the resource base can afford to support us in the manner to which we have or want to become accustomed. And we need to say we're not going to go out of the timber business. We're not going out of the agriculture business. We know there's good competition elsewhere maybe even governments helping their businesses compete against us. We will do whatever is legally appropriate and wise to make sure that our industry survives this and we may have to change radically. We may be able to produce twice the timber with half the labor if that's what productivity means that's OK. What's not OK is seeing towns that are closed down. How does the corporate world differ from the world of government service. That pays better.
And I think the pay system is set up really to tie directly to a performance result. What have you done here at Nike the last year and a half has been spent by me negotiating with the Canadian government and distributor to buy the company we own in Canada and I was sent by Nike as its first president in Canada. A job which will for me be over by fall. And I'm very proud of the group I work with there I think. For me maybe the most exciting thing is being part of a team that has fought well when it's been winning and I think is doing a lot better as a team. While Perth peoples perceive it as a losing that is we actually had a losing quarter to financial If you're a Jew. Is that a hindrance when running for state office in Oregon. I would hope it's not an issue Julius Meyer. Served in this state in the 30s I guess it was and we've had the neighbors and other people who served. I just assume it is not although I am very concerned and I'm not the only one a lot of Christians are concerned about this recent spate of very active and very
ill want Naziism by this crew living in Idaho and elsewhere and I think they're dangerous not particularly Minas as Sara Lee but I think it's a reminder that there are always some people around or a little strange. Would you want your children to go into politics. They wanted to I guess the one thing I want them to do is to respect the people who try. I mean it's such a society of winners this country but there for every race somebody wins and somebody loses and I've had to explain to them I will go through this conversation probably half a dozen more times your dad could run for governor and very likely could be a loser. What do you think he's a loser. And I don't think they quite understand how quickly you become the day after the elections either the newspapers are full of stories about your family because you run or you disappear from the pages because you're lost and in my view politics and the people who are in it deserve a lot of respect for trying. If you would describe Neil goes in one word. What word would you use if somebody were to put something on my tombstone. And it probably wouldn't
Front Street Weekly
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Oregon Public Broadcasting
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Oregon Public Broadcasting (Portland, Oregon)
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Episode Description
This episode features the following segments. The first segment, "Steps of Force," looks at the ongoing issue of police brutality. The second segment, "Illuminator," is an interview with illuminator and calligrapher Joyce Grafe about her illumination techniques. The final segment, "Going Public," is an interview with otherwise reclusive politician Neil Goldschmidt.
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Front Street Weekly is a news magazine featuring segments on current events and topics of interest to the local community.
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News Report
Local Communities
Politics and Government
Law Enforcement and Crime
Right: An Oregon Public Broadcasting Presentation c. 1985, all rights reserved.
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Anchor: Swenson, Jim
Anchor: Booth, Gwyneth Gamble
Director: Graham, Lyle
Executive Producer: Graham, Lyle
Producing Organization: Oregon Public Broadcasting
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Oregon Public Broadcasting (OPB)
Identifier: 113081.0 (Unique ID)
Format: U-matic
Generation: Original
Duration: 00:27:27:00
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Chicago: “Front Street Weekly; 428,” 1985-05-28, Oregon Public Broadcasting, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed June 28, 2022,
MLA: “Front Street Weekly; 428.” 1985-05-28. Oregon Public Broadcasting, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. June 28, 2022. <>.
APA: Front Street Weekly; 428. Boston, MA: Oregon Public Broadcasting, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from