thumbnail of Africans in America; 104; Judgment Day; 
     Interview with Deborah Gray White, Professor of History, Rutgers
    University. 2 of 2
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why has this conversion was probably one of the few accounts travelers account it combines a lot of things as the travelers of account she's a person who comes from another country she's got a very sensitive ear she's looking at slavery not as an american but really as a foreigner and she hasn't really lived here in the united states and so everything is new to her and the oppression that she feels the heat that she feels she gives you a sense of the south that i think is italy says people who lived in the time in this now to agree on this took it for granted she is someone who has lived with a kind of depression has lived with africans settlement with african americans and she is surprised by
everything she sees everything is new to her and so you get a view of a women's lives you get a perspective of a woman as well i'm a woman who is not deeply involved in the system as a system as is unfolding before so she's she's an observer of it and you have a few people who talks about women who talks about the lives of african american women and she's she's sensitive to an end even though maybe some people think that the journal ahhh yeah she makes a whole lot of things up for for a person coming to the united states in the middle of the nineteenth century on everything to her always knew a lot of things are painful it was very painful for her to see this system and four as well as
to see her husband and so involved in because her husband as a plantation old holder he's a very large plantation owner and armed she's somebody who really need to listen to reduce need to to hear her voice because if she wanted to she could certainly protect her husband by covering up a lot of this but everything so stark and everything is just it's just right out there and she's somebody who who is recording it at the time that it's happening we're seeing the black women on her own plantation that she's on and on the butler island plantations come to her
so what were things that i think in fact the most important thing about the journal is that she reveals quite knowingly the central artery of motherhood the sensuality of childbirth and the importance of women to the whole institution of slavery and also the fact that women black women know this they know that they are responsible for reproducing slave population that is leah that the system really unrest on their backs and in their wounds the fact is that often they come to they come to her and they say you know go you know able to work we make the moment is the master which says that was a lie and one of these women is ignorant as they are kept know that the system relies on them knows the that they are that they're value is not only the
work that they do but the children that they have and the fact is on this plantation as on every other plantations in the south masters depended on women to reproduce a slave population this be the one the foreign slave trade ends an eighteen away and as a result of that the reproduction of the system the whole labor system is dependent on african american women to have children for to have children before for the system so they have little boys who will grow and they grow up into and to into slaves and that they were also women are also responsible for socializing the children are socializing them into slavery and i think they mean brenner certain cache iraq than campbell's diary or her journal tells us this time
that chu women are kind of the most like a on a conveyor belt through the system they eat they have children they go back out to the fields two and a half years later they're pregnant again they have children they go back out feels and work so that it no time women free from labor the other thing i think she reveals is just how much work slave masters can get out of the women even when they are supposedly doing like work they're doing like hauling of faces with things like the way they are they are weaving they're selling their there are making silk there looking after our the babies of the plantation campbell's diary i think shows us just how circumscribed women's lives were just now centered they were around having babies and taking care of babies
the station was the whole class has to keep all this in your investigation yes if you read earlier newspaper is to bozo review are lots of journalists and southerners wrote extensively on the subject of how to treat women to make sure that they gave birth and naturally that they are that they had as many children as they possibly could happen and they're and everyone slave woman defied guy described her mother as a regular man woman and she said my mother could do anything she could hunt she could trap she could pick cotton all day and
then she could also she also had children so she could do everything a man could do and everything a woman could do and more us or we were expected to do all of those things are expected to help the babies a respected work in the fields you could find women working on repairing fences if you're in the lumber region of alabama they would be found and courting logs in non leather carrying carriers on their backs they could plot when they did plowing using on new teams in the rice districts they were found you know with their skirts reef around the hair around their waist a working in water up to their waist on the other hand a woman's day and woman african american women slave women had had a double duty because when they when they return from the fields when they turn return from their outdoor labor they also
then they had to set a worker at cooking they had to to us stand cloth spin spin and we and so they had little injuries they had some times they were given saturday's afternoons off to do their laundry as well as do the laundry a single men on the plantation there was nothing that a woman wasn't expected to do ms bee into the system if there is build a whole system of rewards for women who have a lot of children who have them frequently than women and sometimes given all day on saturday if a kid all day free from working if they had six children sometimes they're given an extra dress if they aren't it's a prolific sometimes a quarter even there's a whole system is rather insidious
system which is which is a system a breeding and it's not like they will for some and women together they make it possible in every way possible they make it possible for them to have a trial and they would reward women for having a child in fact won virginia slave master went so far as to tell his slave if she had been she had a child but everyone is five children he would set her free it took her eleven years but in eleven years after she gave birth to her fifth child he didn't accept every day it's been
children well certainly for slave women to have children they knew all the time that when the paper that this child to be taken away from them at any time are sometimes as it has an infinite usually not during infancy sons slave masters wanted they are women to one slave women to nurse children and take care of them but certainly in particular daniel and if so if the trial was a male child because men and boys and t and politically adolescence tended to be separated from now mothers and fathers much more so much more often than girls but on the other hand i remember her a slave woman singing their own she looked at her child she says the mai mai mai china him his mind and no matter what the slave holders wanted to do and what they managed
to allow one of the things this child gave this particular woman as i think children get to all sleep on it was a pointed reference that was different from the masters was it was it was a way of being a sense of being that was totally outside the masses control on a true slave masters state children weren't didn't belong to the harm to the slave mother to the slave father didn't belong to them legally but spiritually spiritually they said all the time these children are mine and they knew it and they did everything they could to keep their own secret oh the slave master could have his way slaves who have only done one thing an hour's work and four women and they would work in the fields and then reproduce at home oh what the family does with a
family did for african americans was create a world outside of the world or it allowed sit before significant others it aloud on the mail slave to be more than just a brute beast it allowed him to be a father to be a son but it allowed women to be mothers an and to take on roles that was outside back out the slave of a servant and in that way even though on the one hand you see the slave master wanted this now because he wanted the slaves to reproduce and to do it in it in a rather natural way but in allowing for that bailout for arm for a whole world to develop and because out of families and communities and with communities came a word the slave master hardly ever knew did you know that you
need these sales oh for sure for sure they do every single thing that they can it's to maintain these communities it is that it is sacred because these are people who are one eats when one worships with one commiserates with arm the people to whom we can take ones too they are people who will who take care of when i'm when slave master's whip these are people who will listen and i'm they administer it is it's from the crypt the slave community in particular women of the community that most of the health care's gotten adam comes from a women working as as nurses on and some aren't some healers and
preachers are healers to women or nurses so the community was clear within a slave master interrupted an oppressed the committee says that an iron and helped oh harry jenkins is a slave and she is raised on the plantation she lives with her grandmother to when she reaches all i think she says she's in her teenage years her master begins to pursue her and i mean her face was that which was suffered by many slave women and the masters the master pursued her and her mistress have showed absolutely no sympathy for whatsoever effect her mysteries had a kind of jealous hatred of her
when she has children and she like others say women can have to think about well what's going to happen to them where you know how will they be raised and she i won her second child was born she finds that the child is grown and she says in ohio my poor child you know she she will have amazing grace of gratitude the burdens of all slaves and hers is this works because she's a slave women it's like women had to deal with sexual exploitation pure unadulterated rape they had to deal with a debt they had no one to protect them unfortunately slave men they're brothers their husbands their fathers couldn't protect them so was only by the force of their own loans that they could fight off an attack or whether that was a mayor slay or whether it was the white minister they
pretty much stood alone in the face of this kind of harassment the kind of sexual exploitation and in the south there was no recognition oh a rape or black women in other words of the rape of a black woman was not considered to be a crime in fact this matter came up in court and court cases and judges judge after judge said you know we do not find that rape of a black woman to be a crime in society so black women could be great to be exploited sexually and they were with impunity what is it she decides she's going to go into hiding of harriet jacobs societies can go into hiding when she hears of her children about to be sold their got out to be sold and broken man now harriet jacobs had children but her children were half why she had had children live
a white me and he tried to buy a pitch that the children and her master dr flamm would not allow it he had a rather perverse desire for harriet jacobs and for her children you mean they were he is and he wanted them to remain hit and in fact what he decides to do is to make sure that that he has a hold on harriet as well as the children is to separate them and send him as he calls it to be broken and by that sent them to doing very very hard work us set them out into the fields and not if they disobeyed if they couldn't keep up with them and harriet says scene she wanted something better for the children and i think she's just like so many other slave woman ghostly women who we know did run away many of them if not most ran away they wanted to protect the children
well yeah well when she's when harriet jacobs decides to run away her grandmother program is really very apprehensive because to make that decision it's a desperate decision and you could as well as many did be brought back to be whipped you could be killed you could be set upon by dogs so to make that decision a new beginning isn't really desperate decision and she runs away and she hides in an attic and she hides in and she hires they are for what what turns out to be about seven years and it is truly operatic window that she's able to see the comings and goings of people in her community she sees her children and she sees dr flamm when she goes for granted her grandmother was here to stay
doesn't want to leave and she says lawyers chow stand by your children you know because a woman who does not standby and protect the children i will never be respected she gets help from a friend who doesn't have any children carrying his body and she says you know those out those children will kill you dead you better leave and run run her grandmother's her grandmother's admonition is always in her ear and that's like stand by your children until death no one respects a woman a mother who does not stand by children says she's torn and as a reporter you're there when she goes into it and she goes into an attic and from the air she's looks at her children and she's able to do this because she drew siskel with a gimlet or a handrail it's very
tiny but she's able to still see her children she's it was c the comings and goings of the people that she knows and she watches she watches for up to seven years under the comings and goings of people in her community in her town and especially agonizing for her was to see her children coming and going and they don't know where their mother is what has happened to them and all they know is that she's not there and that is a particular dilemma that not only harriet jacobs experience the one that gave many women pause because i hear it is they have to decide do i leave do y rhyme what will happen to my children inherit jacob's case she's afraid of them being sold away or or are being taken to a plantation to be broken and so what if you do she she is being pursued by
her master who wants to have sex with their own who was going to exploit her in the worst possible way and but she's not able to just think about herself she has to think about her children and what's going to happen to them without their mother their father mr sands who i am once a he's a white man he had wanted to to buy them you wanted to take care of them but both not able to be cavemen mr duckett where i am just dismiss allowed when silva children so she'd heard the limits is just it's a terrible dilemma and as it turns out her children eventually are taken north by some of her friends and she meets them come up north it's just this is
well in fact yes she is able to stay there from hell is she gets help from her arm from from her community from friends and many of whom won free blacks are free blacks were her though being above or white votes existence they were feared simply because they were black and they were free and they were natural abolitionist they knew that they were just one step as well most of them were remote one step out of slavery one step away from slavery they felt a kindred were there with their arm slate brothers and sixties and they were always there helping in fact did help all the time in fact i am you have the emergence of around eighteen fifteen of many colonization society and these colonization societies are created arm by whites not to colonize slaves in liberia and in africa but to
re edit southern society of free blacks because they were afraid of them they were afraid of the help that they gave the slaves they were also afraid that these were the people who would lead a revolt against slavery that is astonishing narratives that dr flynt pursues her i think is evidence of a lot of things aren't quite men will the south this was a patriarchal regime there was nothing that existed that they could not have let that they could not buy of the law's approach pretty read and to favor them out of favor white women but to favor white man
lead to brett carr of harry jenkins was his property and he believed that he had he had rights to her yet access to her and tom they were his rights i think it speaks his pursuit of his pursuit of her speaks to the patriarchal pound sale justice issues but and one particular incident that happens that darren campbell talks about has to do the french who is the overseer or he's a driver and betty his wife and misty the overseer rapes his wife and she has a son with the overseer many men may man selling pundits many slave manhattan and so for that reason many slave
men refused to marry when you someone like me gleam the wells brown said that he would just not married because he did not want to have his wife quipped he did not want her subjected to rape and camp happy he had this stand there and watch and be just totally incapable of doing anything on many minutes life and limb to support or two i'm in defense of a lot but in this case with frank i'm being the being the driver one would suspect especially since the driver the driver is a very central person on plantations as a black man he is the most respected man he has the most authority of any black man on their plantation and for him to have had this so says to see his wife and had to endure that it says a lot about plantation that there
was no escape no matter how as high up quote unquote one got in the system even if you were a driver ant i'm about a plantation sometimes it was that was that there's an absentee owner most of the time on because the owner could not be there it was it was malaria this year and in the summer months of july in august there was never a white man on the plantation so often the overseer wasn't even there so all of the authority all of the power was attested in this tribe or an even he was subjected to this kind of humiliation the fact that his wife if he if he's why could be taken and abuses way then no mean swat was safe and no man could protect it's why you know i will
yes if if this driver a frank cannot protect very odd and he has all of the authority means youth well if frank and protect his one arm is his wife betty anne frank is a driver and he has the most authority of any black man on their plantation what this is is that no woman could ever get protection from any man from any black man on their plantation no man to protect his wife and no woman could dixie protection and we're going to find you a slave was what a slave could and could not do white people so there's little some
winners as well americans in general to find what it meant to be free and defining who slaves were white people also to find themselves they define to free people or because the slaves was the opposite of a free person so if a slave was a person who worked and he was expected to do all of the work was expected to do all of the heavy labor that every person a white person was somebody who was not expected to work who wasn't expected to to work from sunup to sundown if a free person could be owned by or could be an owner then the slave person was a person who was owned
along in the very early years when this system is being established armed quite came to mean christian they came out eventually englishmen now encryption in white are african not associated with black got associated with hedonism got associated with savagery and in the process this is a century's went by black people want black people were defined by white people as white people decided on who vape we're quite risky got to find at the same time as our slavery was established com whiteness met someone who was very someone nike came to mean someone who could vote because a slave certainly could
not quote i'm blackness mad not to be able to to be owned also not own property of one was defined as property than white people came to be the owners of the property is how does what is this well the second defining the slave i think white people define themselves if a slave was somebody who was black who did all the work who served in perpetuity then the opposite of that was somebody who was quite who was three who did not work or at least it now work as hard if the slave had to answer to to a white
man to a higher authority if the slave had a master that's what it meant to be a slave that's what it meant to be black to be home white net that you answered only to yourself it meant that no i didn't you do any work or there but that you could own probably slaves can't own property slaves are property then a reversal there were the opposite side of that was is that to be white men to be able to own property but this place can serve on juries if our slaves can testify in court and if that's the meaning of slavery and slavery is racial and it's black them to be quiet to be quite meant that yes you have the right not only to vote to serve on juries to testify your freedom gets defined in opposition to the black man slavery that were thinking about what it would've meant is probably a non white house is the
life issue oh they are reality is being schaper to filling any team twenties in the eighteen thirty their reality is being shaped by the development of the arm the manufacturing and industrial sector and one of the things that they have to worry about particularly white men is whether or not as low wage slaves they will fall into slavery themselves when they call themselves wage slaves what do they mean they are developing an identity an identity as a worker in the context of slavery where people in fact are slaves they could say you've been mistakenly we're tied to the machine maker to euphemistically that we're well wage servants that we are quite slaves that we are waves slips that they are developing a consciousness and then in the end the period when baxley reid doesn't actually exist so
how are they different they have got to decide how am i different am i free to own property most white man walked free on property but they can't because they don't make enough money on but i'm working and i'm working in the ways that i'm working i'm working like a slave but there really is slippery and slaves in fact black people do lose their freedom does that mean that the worker will somehow slip beneath that line and somehow become a slave a real sway on they define what it means to be a worker i what it means to be a white workers in the context of black slavery so so do you are you singing there is a fear of an old wire workers that this time they will actually possibly lose their freedom and there is a fear that they will lose every my workers to fear very much so that they will lose their
freedom and in fact it is that fear of loss of freedom that forces them to differentiate themselves from the sleigh and then differentiating themselves from the slate they must differentiate themselves from the black man from the black person they have to gain an identity as a white worker that one that is very different from what it means to be a black worker in american society in the encounter thanks so much american freedom exist above the color line and i think it is that color line that line that differentiates between white and black that makes it possible for
there to be freedom among white people for there to be such a thing as upward mobility no one would ever fall below the line a white person is ever going to fall below that line that denmark's freedom and slavery they can never be slaves and as a result they can never perhaps be weighed slate's live can always somehow have opportunity on it is the black man who is doing the hardest the heaviest on the most demeaning labor that makes it possible for white people to believe that they will now ever have to do that it makes american freedom possible that makes mobility an equal opportunity for quite possible it is freedom debt exist above the color line and so in american society unlike most european society and class class becomes demarcated not so much a long socio economic
levels how much do you make the class really is differentiated along lines of color caller blacks versus quite as long as you are why then you could never be black as long as you're white you could never be a slave and as long as you why you could never do the most demeaning the most horrible work you could never be exploited like this like that was what black people did it is in which you grew up if we think of the ways that in some ways the well which was laid out for sure the blueprint is laden with slavery it's one of the interesting issues surrounding the whole development of slavery
is whether not slavery course to prejudice or prejudice course slavery and in fact they probably felt on each other the fact of the matter is though that by the time of the american revolution when american principles of freedom and liberty is set down by that time black has come to mean on demeaning labour black has come to to have all these negative connotations and black has become associated with slavery and slavery is the opposite of freedom and even after slavery is eusebio wants emancipation comes with at the end of the civil war even after slavery is done away with the fact that black people have been associated with this and got to find in such a way that made it possible for black people to be there to be true that the labor and for this country and it was going to be almost impossible
for that label to watch it just disappear because color became such a defining line in this country by this by the time of emancipation was so was the rest of the world say that again mo willems how well slavery and slavery in this country was was not to slavery was racial slayer i'm going for sure was not just about economics
it was pure simple about color what certain people could do and what certain people could not do based on the color of this can't you couldn't get rid of the color of black people stand there you couldn't get rid of the prejudice arm and the associations that way along with with the coal and wood with blackness very early on from thomas jefferson benjamin franklin and they were feelings that black people were different was fundamentally different me one point black people were thought to be a different species but black people will fundamentally different and women jefferson's notes on virginia and in letters that of benjamin franklin well they had a preference and they put it right after their preference was for white people they thought quite people were pretty they were more beautiful they were more intellectual they were
deserving a free so by the time you get to emancipation people who had fought long been thought to be deserving of slavery are deserving of demeaning treatment on that that has now apple weighing with the institution and that's because the prejudice that one along with slavery the president's them a slavery that made sloppy and that was essential for slayers perpetuation just didn't disappear very early on around the time of the revolution somewhere around seventeen fifty and from then on art thomas jefferson benjamin franklin they decided they rode down even in jefferson's notes on virginia and in letters that benjamin franklin wrote i'm that they had a preference for white people have a preference for the
color of their skin as opposed to the africans they thought they were fear they thought that they were more intellectual they thought that the african were savages thought that the africans he then armed they made it perfectly clear that they wanted no message a nation that they wanted a race of white people supporters i think we'll get a very good look at a women's now works with the i'm a butler islands and an even though campbell is describing this woman's network she really doesn't know that she's describing it and the women are all in the infirmary the infirmary was a woman's world because most of the women who were there radio four year either just about to have a child
just finished having each other either nursing child ahmed's a perfect example of how women take care of each other when out a woman dies in is in labor it sounds it's african african american women who were taking care of them midwives our current are black that people who are african women who these women in particular look to for support doing they're laying in time these are there are african american women of slaves on the female network i think would leave its bid it functions almost like a family in the sense that women can get support from each other if they needed if they needed some sort of advice about men they would go to to the earth to the women friends was also a point of reference as far as is known as dewey was concerned women when we tell each other and how who we are how to carry
themselves arm the women's network socialized young girls into the community of women how to how to carry oneself when mom was working a little bit too fast when one had a slowdown they were leaders in this community people and women who other women could look to force for support but also we use as a point of pride and with a source of pride for women who were nurses for instance we really looked up to older women older women who knew the secrets of roots in who who very often have child care responsibilities they were and then the mic the mothers when the real mothers were out in the fields working so women had to rely on on themselves it's often said that slave women and african american women in particular i self
reliant and self sufficient but it was a self sufficiency and the self reliance that didn't come naturally and it was a self reliance self sufficiency that was built on dependence independence among women and they butler island was located in an area where there are very few white people it was malaria infested it was infested with yellow fever and doing on this july on this september and even maybe parts of june he found that most of the white planters who i am to own the plantation where they tended to leave the island they tended to go north or they went out to the mainland because it was just too dangerous for them to be around
and as a result it led to the epic population that was very african because there were very few whites there they were also very dark skin because there was at least for the women in these islands a lot less sexual exploitation and there was on the mainland and because it was so few whiteman few white man few white women and as a result it is in the sea islands that you find a lot of the hour the most african culture that you find in the non state is preserved they saw a lot of religious practices are maintained a respect for the elderly is most maintain her you find african music patterns there that you don't find in and most of all you find the language is very different because in gullah gullah language and is it it's a pigeon english but is almost more african
than it is english and in fact it is probably made up to language that comprises more african line this is done it does skew the consequence of oppression and how does the kittens own ways especially in addition to the well larson said that religion is the opiate of the masses but it didn't really function that way for african americans african americans during the slavery period took the old testament in particular as their bible arm and in the old testament god said his chosen people free arm and god delivered moses' and he delivered the israel lights out of bondage and those passages that that
talked about freedom and freedom from mom for misery and freedom from from labor of those passages that are most important to the two slaves christianity on some key african americans a higher salary it wasn't slaves and they amassed a whoa who's the master the masters god the god that christianity taught a certain equality and brotherhood all men are equal because all men by the children of god and therefore all men are equal in his side christianity kievan african americans gave slaves another master win the masters
said slaves of dr masters the slave could take that to mean a big art because in god's sight and out all men were equal or men were on the brothers and god was the master of the more so even the slave owner would have to answer to a higher authority and that higher authority was gone he's supremely cynical it has in fact if if white people who taught slaves to read sometimes were prosecuted they were sometimes finding sometimes put in jail it was a crime to teach a slave to read
and yet some messages had to alaska and slaves to learn how to read because like the driver who ran the plantations in many slaves that have a lot of authority and the plan is that they have to they need them to be able to read in order for them to carry on the business of the plantation but in fact it was very dangerous for any white person to teach a slave to read or read it i was even more dangerous because with every with that with that knowledge one could write a pass to our write themselves a path so that they you know that would make it easy for them to run away arm they were always able to tell what people were doing and thinking and then they they can also alert about rebellions in other places about what black people with fleas were doing in other places and then in that regard they were never caught off and has
cut off from each other as is once when one of them today if a black slave knew how to read he could facilitate the freedom of another by slate by enabling this person teaching his priests and how to ride a pass a pass that would allow them a passage on slave on the southern roadways at night slaves who knew how to read could could read newspapers and they could ever find out about rebellions happening in other places and thus they will be as isolated and we're not as isolated slate understood that weeding was a key to liberation just as at a sliver of education became a key to equality and freedom
and there is a rape and sexual exploitation or not incidental to the system but they are part and parcel of the oppression the way that you make people the way that you subject them in particular subject the men is by pressing the women in that way making it impossible for women to press the women is to live llewyn davis data that out of that it's b rape and sexual exploitation or an audience that just incidental to the system but they really essential because awaiting to oppress the people and particular you'll press the man and making it impossible for them to protect their women
that way you can keep the whole race down you can subject them all racial integration has sir well i think were things that people did to protect themselves psychologically was to create relationships with each other was to create relationships within the slave community by having a wife by being a father by being in mother you created some space to create a whole new identity an identity that existed outside that which was imposed by the slave master on the other thing you do
you had kinship networks and you made it did kinship networks even among people who were not your real brother or a sister you treated in that way and in that way are you created bond's where there might not be any otherwise particularly if you've been sold away had been sold down the river put on a plantation somewhere on the way you had no mother we had no fire very quickly i mean what happened was that people made brothers out of a loaf of men and boys who were their meat sisters out of the women who were there they formed relationship tape formed human relationships religion also help people protect themselves psychologically this is how real is
it the fear of being sold was always there i think it was probably their even when they were thinking about it because so much of their behavior on that you see with slaves has to do with keeping the family in texting on a particular plantation as campbell brought out when we would have children sometimes they would hurt children just to show the nasty as i can i can happy these i can calm i can be a good sleep if that's what you want me to do in this way anchor themselves to a particular plantation but the fear of being so the fear of being spilled was it was just terrific it was it was it penetrated everything that the slate clean this is weekend
edition but i don't think you can understand race relations today without honesty and slavery until we come to grips with it until we understand peoples' prejudices their origin it's how we really can't even begin to work on getting rid of them and getting and working together as a people are even though people will say well i didn't do it to white people and say i didn't do it my father didn't do it in my grandparents they didn't do it one of the things it's essential is to know that slavery is not just a southern instead tuition is an american institution and it was an institution everyone bought into the north north board into at the southport into it it was cotton that made this country skiing in and now eighteen fifteen at sixty it was cotton that appeal the industry or of the
early industrial revolution in this country particularly in new england so without understanding the past we really can't understand the future we can understand why people have the prejudices they have how black people and white people came to live two to be a proper sit ins in issued on certain issues like civil rights human rights groups as well i think the impact of sex but the impact the sexual violence has heightened the white family says is to full arm at the same time it it just bristle destroys relationships between white men and women it makes them distrustful of each other
Africans in America
Episode Number
Judgment Day
Raw Footage
Interview with Deborah Gray White, Professor of History, Rutgers University. 2 of 2
Contributing Organization
WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)
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Deborah Gray White is interviewed about the journal of Frances "Fanny" Kemble, the lives of slave women, Harriet Jacobs, headman Frank and the rape of his wife Betty, what it means to be white vs. what it means to be black, the persistence of racism because of attitudes formed during slavery, Butler Island and black culture, the importance of Christianity and education, maintaining identity, fear of being sold, legacy of slavery.
Race and Ethnicity
American history, African Americans, civil rights, slavery, abolition, Civil War
(c) 1998-2017 WGBH Educational Foundation
Media type
Moving Image
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Release Agent: WGBH Educational Foundation
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Identifier: White_Deborah_Gray_04_merged_SALES_ASP_h264.mp4 (unknown)
Duration: 1:01:23
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Chicago: “Africans in America; 104; Judgment Day; Interview with Deborah Gray White, Professor of History, Rutgers University. 2 of 2 ,” 1998-00-00, WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed September 20, 2020,
MLA: “Africans in America; 104; Judgment Day; Interview with Deborah Gray White, Professor of History, Rutgers University. 2 of 2 .” 1998-00-00. WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. September 20, 2020. <>.
APA: Africans in America; 104; Judgment Day; Interview with Deborah Gray White, Professor of History, Rutgers University. 2 of 2 . Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from