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The evolution of jazz is. A survey of American art form from Scott Joplin to Lenny Tristan Oliver. The evolution of jazz is a tape recorded feature presented under the auspices of Northeastern University by the Lowell Institute cooperative broadcasting Council. Nat Hentoff associate editor of Downbeat Magazine discusses the growth of jazz from its roots in Europe and Africa. And considers the musical as well as the sociological forces that shaped it. Mr Hentoff. Last week we were beginning to examine the functions of the various instruments in the New Orleans jazz band and baby dogs. The New Orleans jazz drummer who later as did so many of the Storyville musicians moved to Chicago was describing some of his jazz percussion background. In this demonstration
which he calls spooky drums and which actually means whimsical more than scary he demonstrates what fun it is to play drums on the sly humor which can be achieved through quick contracts. This will be followed with a demonstration of his shimmy beat and the press roll
demonstration. Of you know the call of the day you know that I don't want to do it yet. And I thought well you know that if you look at a very high threat they use if you don't follow through not you don't. I don't want to talk about joy. Chock full of all let me. They said
old Ed.. I just want you to do a lot of this work with you if you don't like it. Did that make it all go. For it. I'm here for you. Here baby dads presents the steady slow beat of the blues at a tempo of 67. He gives a demonstration of the way and drumming a
curtain opens with a roar that follows is played behind the trumpet solo. There's humor and there's two for him. The pattern with half and quarter rolls and as the editor of these notes says you can imagine his band swinging down the Avenue of the ground. The jazz drum not only in New Orleans jazz but in all the later evolutions of jazz drumming.
As anything goes and observes has its own role and is at the same time part of a group interplaying way than supporting the other instruments subtly adjusting its tambourines to back and fill out the solos marking the end of one and introducing another accenting a climax and helping above all to furnish the solid rhythmic pulse upon which the other instruments build their complex structures. One of the best examples of this use of the drum is provided by this example of a much later period in jazz it could be called a swing record. In the drumming of the big said Catlett this flexible complexity jazz drumming reached in the 30s and 40s and the importance of an pathing drumming behind each soloist. The even more complicated poly rhythmic patterns of contemporaries like Max Roach will be covered in the later section on modern jazz but there is a excellent example of jazz drumming as provided by
Syd Catholic. Note his work behind each soloist and his own work between the different solos. More than.
A man. 0.
0. 0. 0 0. 0. Think a timebase as Charles Edward Smith notes where they tell instruments
salvaged from the old New Orleans string trio a function of these instruments like that of the drums is to produce the regular fundamental beat and unthinking Stein's phrase one of the most extraordinary and beautiful achievements for a jazz sound as they combined rhythm section on harmonized percussion a beat that is at the same time a chord and a rich tambourine sound. This has been true of all of the early New Orleans jazz though in the poor recorded caliber of some of the recordings in the 20s. This aspect of it has not been very clearly heard. Let me demonstrate this harmonized percussion a beat that is at the same time a chord and a rich tambourine sound with an example from a later period in jazz a rhythm section that many believed to have been the best in all of jazz. That of the Count Basie Orchestra a. The guitar was at first not often used as a melodic instrument except in very
small groups. And during the 20s the banjo was often used rather than guitar. The New Orleans string bass. Well I might add that the guitars since become the instrument. For its function in the group when I want to string bass which took the place of the tuba almost always played puts a capo and then like George pops Foster and Wellman bro achieved powerfully rhythmic effects by slapping or snapping the strings. Here for example as Pops Foster. Since the piano except for the solo pianists and story they'll like Jelly Roll Morton and we've heard examples of his style and his impressions of other pianists of that era since the piano was a relatively subsidiary
instrument in the New Orleans Jazz will examine jazz piano more fully later in the chorus. After covering the historical periods when it began to evolve as a uniquely individual voice in the jazz ensemble as well as a predominantly rhythm instrument the cornet or trumpet was the dominant instrument usually in the New Orleans ensemble. And I like to quote a perceptive. Series of points that Sidney Finkelstein makes on its use in early and later jazz trumpet became the leading instrument about which New Orleans parade music developed its brilliant tambourine carrying power its explosive percussive impact combined with sweet singing tones making it especially fit for a lead role. It took on as well the role of singing the blues and developed a great variety of Tambora as combining the open horn with muted growl and half of cloudy tones. Such dirty tones as as they are sometimes called are often ascribed to an attempt to imitate the
human voice too much can be made of this theory however for just a sound track that tempers are ascribed to a voice influence some vocal practices like Armstrong singing or ascribed to a trumpet technique. There are then many deliberate attempts to imitate the human voice with a trumpet as were the clarinet and trombone but the relation between voice and instrument takes place on a higher level than that of mere imitation. Rather the trumpet becomes an extension of the human voice and translates the accents of speech. The staccato consonants and long drawn vowels in the Trumpet temporary these towers are expansions of possibilities within the trumpet itself and so jazz rather than limiting the instrument to vocal imitation has enormously expanded the technical and expressive possibilities of the instrument. The purpose of the dirty tones for the more is not solely comic although it may often be so but they are wholly musical one of providing the contrast that makes for expressiveness they are not meant to be heard alone actually that kind of tone can get to sound as cloyingly sweet as the open horn and more subtle
surprise in contrast either with itself or with other instruments are the essence of the moving music created by the jazz trumpet. New Orleans parades demanding a percussive impact together with a clear melodic line and the Blues calling for the utmost and expressive Nuance has made a major musical instrument of the trumpet raising it in certain respects to a level not found in the previous history of music. This is a recording made in Chicago in the 20s by a group of New Orleans musicians who had emigrated there. And it features the cornet of the man who is universally regarded as the greatest trumpet player in the history of jazz. Louis Armstrong. Oh. They cried out in New Orleans developed an extremely facile technique.
Undoubtedly under the influence of French woodwind tradition there was a strong Creole influence on jazz clarinet especially the Teoh's father and son Creole clarinetist of considerable technique taught many of the New Orleans clarinetist and the Geos had been influenced by the French woodwind of the opera company in the philharmonic orchestra in the city. And I even have played in the symphony orchestra form by Creoles in the 19th century. As a result no matter how he's always almost always graceful and is usually played in a sweeping legato style and has some New Orleans clarinetist became especially adept at the shallow register of the instrumental lower register as Albert Nicholas demonstrates and Albert is of Blues A. Quite a deep exploration of the Shalem origin story by New Orleans clarinetist like Bonnie but
guide will be illustrated during the section on Duke Ellington and Nicholas this fall has largely been of course in the middle register. The New Orleans clarinet combined fluidity of the soil so well demonstrated by Albert Nicholas where the attack and definition as in this illustration by George Lewis. A. I
am. I am. I am. I and. I am. I and I and I am. I and. I and I am. I and. I
am. I and I am. I am I am. Johnny Dodds was the greatest of all New Orleans clarinetist We've had several examples of his work with Louis Armstrong in the corner of chop suey and in the one to follow on Ori's Creole trombone. And there will be other ways. Clarinet too and its range extended and it's expressive potentialities stretch to New Orleans jazz as did the trombone and
trombone was used both as bass instrument in the harmony and for melodic purposes and also for a felon's in the texture of the music whence comes that distinctively New Orleans glissando trombone slide known as tail gate. For reasons previously mentioned one of the oldest New Orleans trombone us who played with King all over and Louis and is playing on the West Coast at present and has been for many years was Kid Ory and this is an example of his style.
The Evolution of Jazz
Episode Number
Dixieland, Part One
Producing Organization
WGBH Educational Foundation
Contributing Organization
University of Maryland (College Park, Maryland)
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Episode Description
This program, the first of two, talks about the emergence of white jazz musicians in New Orleans, as well as the unique influences that they brought to jazz.
Series Description
Jazz historian Nat Hentoff presents a series that traces the history of jazz, from its musical and cultural roots to its contemporary forms. "The Evolution of Jazz" was originally broadcast from WGBH in 1953-1954, and was re-broadcast by the National Educational Radio Network in 1964.
Broadcast Date
Asset type
Dixieland music--Louisiana.
Media type
Embed Code
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Host: Hentoff, Nat
Producer: Hentoff, Nat
Producing Organization: WGBH Educational Foundation
AAPB Contributor Holdings
University of Maryland
Identifier: 55-32-13 (National Association of Educational Broadcasters)
Format: 1/4 inch audio tape
Duration: 00:28:57
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Chicago: “The Evolution of Jazz; 13; Dixieland, Part One,” 1954-02-05, University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed March 2, 2024,
MLA: “The Evolution of Jazz; 13; Dixieland, Part One.” 1954-02-05. University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. March 2, 2024. <>.
APA: The Evolution of Jazz; 13; Dixieland, Part One. Boston, MA: University of Maryland, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from