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Ier. Means. In hell where Come my name is Joyce chan. I'm having a special being there for my friends. Officer Young chemists Gabbers of Harvard University and Mr. Edward Colline Forney editor of Newsweek magazine and my children Helen and if the US leaves ya in us we are going to share with you the ex perience face off family had in China. And because Mr. Gabbers and the Mr Klein. Had also been there recently we are going to accomplish here
experiences with there's zero. Chance. China settled in Massachusetts has become a landmark. Chinese culture and cuisine. In the summer of 1970 to return children. Hello. Stephen. I'm 16 millimeter camera. Captured in China on the field. For this the first televised report. Of Chairman Mao was brought back by a Chinese American family. And. Kept the detailed family diary. Story. JOYCE. First told me that she'd like to go to China now that one could travel to China. And I thought to myself Well this is one trip I can't miss I just I just have to
go with her. So I told her I said you must take me. This is why I must go with you because I felt very strongly that. She held the key. To all this marvelous information all these stories. They just were pictures I wanted to see but it was alive and she knew it all. So it's all me. Question why you feel how. When you applied for permission to go to China you must state in writing why you want to come. Sense and here's my mother reading part of her letter of intent. You see I'm already over 50 years old in China always say it's a candle almost burning. So I hope before I die I will face it my home and. Then I. Can Come Back. I had deep surely report to the United States friends.
And I hope that both country can understand. More. And then they also come better friendship. This is the border line between Hong Kong and the People's Republic of China on this side is the Union Jack on the other. The red flag of China. They transit haven't chanted that much but at their command there and a much mosque organized there is no class differentiation on Chinese trains.
The only difference is whether you buy a hard seat or a soft seat. Soft seats being more comfortable also cost a little more. Can John is the first stop for people coming from Hong Kong. I found it to be a very businesslike city in Canton and was a very famous port. And I believe it is still so it was very exciting to see prover. We walked along the river. And there were a lot of Chinese out there sitting chatting smoking. A lot of bicycles. And the trees there were a lot of trees along the sidewalk and those were rustling in the breeze and we decided why not walk a little farther into the city. So we walked across the street and there were people sitting outside reading papers by the street light doing some hand laundry playing little cards.
And I noticed that a lot of people wearing these marvelous looking plastic sandals. So I tried a few on and I bought a pair I liked and a roll of toilet paper which he found that could be useful later on on the train. It was hot muggy and count time and we wanted to go to Shanghai as quick as possible. On the train they would have women announcers who spoke in beautiful Mandarin which is the national dialect in China now. And she would give direction. Please be careful boarding the train. Giving the time time with different stops and all sorts of information that would be necessary for travel on the train. She would say things like Please don't put your hands out the window or your head out the window. Make sense. And then she also said mothers don't let your children wet the floor.
If. We stopped fairly often on our train rides for 15 minutes stop it was very easy to get right off the train and buy some Chinese food from the vendors. Each city had its own specialty. I loved. The delicious dry flaky cake. We were really surprised how good the food on the train and how resemble the price. My son Steven favorite beef weighed on me.
Lead to first real for us. They die laughing. When I got there at first it felt a little strange but then I realized this is not a strange country for me it's my country and my people and my real relatives in the flesh not only photographs. Shanghai is a very large city. In fact I believe is the most populated city in the world and it's almost like a New York atmosphere. Everyone seemed very busy. They all had someplace to go. The streets were always crowded. I tried very hard to blend in with the crowd. So I would walk in the streets with the with the blue shirt and you know very blue plaid pants in a white shirt. But still it was something people kind of looking at me and I quickly look at their eyes and say nose with my shoes.
Because usually people don't wear leather shoes. Then I caught on and luckily I brought a pair of sneakers which they call Ping-Pong sneakers. In Shanghai many people would follow look at me very curious and very curious way very innocent. I didn't wear my hair the same way. I didn't wear the same clothes. I didn't talk the same way. My aunt said you could try wearing your hair in pigtails. I don't wear any skirts I don't wear bright colors. The pigtails worked fine when I went out. I still remember all the stories in Shanghai from before. But the most of the names have been changed. They used to be Franch and English and Chinese.
I was. Oh. Just breathing in the morning.
People do that. I went out with my cousin and she was taking me shopping and she held my hand and I felt very very close to her. And I felt not as a
tourist would but I was home. My sister invited us for the in there. Proud to see this fish. Say everybody have some crab meat. When we started to eat it si began to laugh. Cease say it this. Yes in my case it made the waste vegetable and eggs the first time that my mother saw her sick sister. She was waiting downstairs and we took an elevator down. I was all excited because I'd never seen her before and when the elevator door opened my mother walked out. My sister was there she suddenly stood up and she looked at my mother and said Mom are you gaining weight. In some trial one of the things we visited found factories
and Chiles very well known for the sound the wood fence that they make. Very pleasant to look at. On our trip we also took a Polaroid which we thought people would be very interested in.
And they were. They heard about it but they actually have seen it. And we would. You know say well look up more towards this. And. They like to have more opposed. And then snap you take the picture. And then before you know it just you're engulfed with people you know pushing shoving and you have a hard time pulling the film and the camera also has a timer the beeps so everyone is quiet you know and people start pushing each other let me see oh let me see it and look at the colors. A. Us A literate in China. We studied a race medic. History channel he said. Brush writing English and even English penmanship. They also study English.
Six days a week. Now they have classes five face and they work one day either in the factory. I'm very proud. A woman. In. One of the nursery schools. Playing restaurant. And they were chefs. Waiters and waitresses.
Play princess. Every day reality. I thought it would be very nice to take some pictures of these children in the jungle gym. And they were all laughing and saying take a picture of me take a picture of me. Very friendly. You're not selfish and they're not shot. The position of women in China. Has changed greatly. And now 90 percent of the women work. Abortion is legal. The government encourages small families. Women don't change their names after marriage there is a rotation that goes women are half the sky. So it's how is famous for that with kids and brought their
way they used to do. And beautiful. Now they also make us. Look like a male once. There we saw them and cats very thin. Fibers of silk. It would take them months to make one. And when you looked at it it seemed so lifelike it was unbelievable. In every factory that we went to there was always a party member a worker and someone in management to show us around. October 1st in China it is National Day the equivalent to our July 4th and that time we were in shock.
We were never told what we had to do or see. It was suggested that we set aside national day so that we could be shown all the celebration and the activities that were taking place. We didn't see any kind of military parade. Where we hope people from factories giving entertainment. And high school students. Everyone would do some type of entertainment. Free of charge. Above. The boat. There were anti-American signs around but my mother had noticed that they were being erased. They were in Chinese. So Steven and I couldn't read them
but we did understand this pantomime with the American soldier. We were stunned. We had no idea they would put this kind of propaganda on the stage. As Americans we felt very uncomfortable but it was the only unpleasant experience of this kind we had there. We were in Shanghai. I unfortunately caught a cold and I had a very bad cough which lasted a few weeks. Then my relative said maybe you ought to see a doctor or else take some medicine. So I thought well maybe why don't I try some chinese medicine for a change. So my mother went out and got some. I looked at the label and it said petrified. Horns horns I was thinking deer antler horns. Oh my goodness. Well why not. So it said Take Five every every six hours and they were small town looked innocent enough so I took them and then my cough was still there. So I decided maybe I ought to see a doctor just to get rid of a little faster and went to the hospital and I was
treated by a woman doctor and she looked at me the Chinese way. Stick out your tongue and took my pulse in my weight and she gave me some medication and that cleared up right away. The nice thing about the Chinese hospital is that it only cost five cents. Our competitor felt like I picked my skittle by when the thing went in. They need those who are put in the bottom of my hill and they side of my ankle. So my hail you it hurts me a later bit because the skiing is like the first time they were left you know five medals and OK. And I could she failed the electricity current jam being inside my foot. So then they put out the needle quickly so I wouldn't feel anything when the treatment last owner but I had to know after the fact.
And you went to a soldier's club which is a building complex almost and he would teach these little soldiers which were also boys and girls how to build rockets papercut. And we even saw acupuncture through supervision. I asked a friend of ours what is a little bit soldier and how do you become a little soldier. And he told me he spoke English of course. He told me that to be a little red soldier you have to be good honest and helpful also. It is his school mates. If you should become a soldier. Not a teacher.
Why is a resort town. It's a
town where my father came from. I remember him as a very beautiful place with West Lake and the mountains. He saw many young couples because it was well known as a honeymoon haven. All of the beautiful spots there. I enjoyed it most for its natural beauty the west lake and of course the delicious West like fish. Where were you and I had this fish. In this area very famous. I think the best. China. She told us about it. She said soon as you walk into her.
You can smell the fragrance of the. Week. The morning after a train. Start. A pile of trash to be carefully put nice tied up on the top because they were good people and stories. So we want to respect their feeling of this. My mother told me to give it to the attendant and dispose of it properly. So I gave it to him. It was very kind. And he was walking near the window. And he just open the window and push out the window and I was surprised because the things you hear about a child. And then he said Don't worry we'll pick it up later.
Peking is a historical city like Washington D.C. people are encouraged to learn and since Peking is one city. People have come up with the phrase learn from peeking. Behind square in Peking city. Endless rooms. Twice. Still didn't have enough time to visit the whole thing. Or the car.
He was Chinese. And I went up to the Chinese. And took out my camera and showed to him. He was very interested. And then my mother came and started to talk to him. And we found out that he was from the Peking TV station. For them. But he's been there for two months. So he was all prepared for it. But it was a clear day. He had some free time. He shot all the footage of the Great Wall. Stephen's favorite film of the experience was that of the children picking radishes.
They seem to have so much fun. Mother and I joined in too. One day a week. The children have an opportunity to go work in a farm picking radishes or doing other kinds of work to teach them about labor and what it's like to work with the land. But. There are many different kinds of radishes and they have many different uses. One of the most unusual is to carve them into flowers. They are just as salsa. It takes them just a few minutes to make one. The chef himself. Showed us how he made these carvings.
His tools were very simple. A kitchen knife and a jack knife. Very swiftly very shortly and Mayday America was. In the street in May. They were much much rougher. Very many people now can make figurines. Visited his daughter and two apprentices. We asked the man if you would please move into the light. And then his apprentices. Noticed this quickly came out
carried his chair for him carried his tools pushed the Cherry And so he could sit down comfortably. And Stephen started shooting. He was their teacher. And he was an elder. And they show the same respect to other people they meet on the street. We were fortunate enough to visit an open market. Outside they had piles of beautiful vegetables some of the vegetables look very interesting because I never saw them before I had to ask my mother what is this a market Imp a king is a much a moron. All the nice that then be full. They are not all computation because if he is armed by the government. Most often vegetables wrong. Yeah buy from Commie every day a person they bring
in fresh vegetables they need raising gates for certain things for our young and any scene made from rice and the wheat for ours also ration. Different amounts for man and women. In this market they also prepared food. One counter they had Chinese cold cuts prepared for. And then on another you could buy pretty poor Shinde ingredients they had. For instance they had pork had the fork all cut up. The egg all the vegetables cut up and then all you had to do was heat up the pan put it all in and cook it. The red star commune near Peking is probably the number one in.
China. It's one of the best. With many people. As organized. People have many things going on. Also. These were people who had no family or their families were somewhere else. So there was no one to take care of them. Here they would talk. And. They would have one person who would cook for them. And they seemed very happy. People help each other. It was more of a community feeling. The oldest person in that retirement 98
was still very active. My mother had a picture taken with them and they're all smiling with a cane in their hand. We were shown their Peking duck farm. Beautiful white Peking ducks. They look very much like white America. The Peking duck is spring water that they drink. That's what gives them the flavor. They show from the very beginning. Our guide even pulled out a tray full of hatched chicks. Back to. A very special. There yes a special way. To prepare yet. Their special way to serve it.
A special way to eat the. Favorite the best. Yes testiness. In America diet. I decided to forget the whole thing just to enjoy myself. I had. Special favorite. Dust myself. Managed to gain 10 pounds but too much because I was just enjoying myself. I had. My family for years. I. Am. The way. They are. I've never seen them and they've never seen me because I was born in Cambridge Massachusetts.
You heard of these people but you never really met them. As soon as the door opens I see my one of my aunts and it's. A First you seem like strangers. And just within two days we're like. Old friends or we knew each other for such a long time. On my mother's side I had my sixth aunt. Her husband. Then I had my third hand. My number one uncle. And on my father's side there was number six and. Number Five and. Number one our number one uncle's wife. And then all my cousins here I am four years old dressed up in my new dress my godmother gave me for New Years. My mother's hometown job is not a tourist spot. I visit
was the highest point of our trip. We went because it's where my mother lived and where her brother's grave is located. The day that that we decided to go to see my uncle's grave It started out as a very nice day. But as we approached the grave it started to get very cloudy and then it began to rain and when we got there it surprised me because there was no marker just a mound of earth and on either side some pine trees. My mother said that's your uncle's grave. And she said let's pay our respect. When he was 30 at the high school he joined companies PADI. When I have a bad year and the farmers they cannot pay for the rent I say they have it not enough for himself. And he and I had to fight. Somebody be treating him
reported. So he caught him. And lock him up. I was only about 10 years old but I only remember your grandfather my mother was so War way that everybody's so upset about it you know and I just I remember a grandmother say don't get him here to pick him. Hillary was too late. After two mines for the hot time in that year jail and netting come out from here to the side executed. How did they do that. Yeah I think they care. And the public execution yes. Yes. Humans. I knew my brother had. Died. I was surprised to find. And I know.
The only sad moment for us was when we finally had to say goodbye and our relatives took us to the train station. We had their pictures taken in front of the station with my brother with my mother with me and then the conductor announced it was time to board. And that's when it was. It seemed so sad to us and when I noticed my 71 year old uncle had tears in his eyes and so did my aunt. That's my second my third aunt and my mother and we all felt very touched and no one said too much because we knew how we felt inside. Very sad to see each other leave.
And then my mother broke the silence and she said why not let's say goodbye the American way. And the Chinese are usually very reserved and we don't hug. We don't kiss. But we did this time and I hugged my uncle and I hugged my aunt my cousins. And we hugged all around. Steven my mother and then we did board the train and we waved goodbye. It was very quiet ride. And we're all deep in our thoughts. And I know we're all thinking the same thing. Their last words to us were promise you'll come back soon. The film was was just foreign but I thought your camera were just incredibly good that you could have a job with Newsweek. I'm. Only about five or six hours before I left when my mother got
up to go and she said you know if you go you have to take some movies so I can. So for me to come here to take quickie lessons I want to show I always develop a terrible headache or something. These are really good. Well my mother helped directed. Me. Roger how much more of that there is back of this society some more privileged bureaucratic or ruling class. TURNER You're not I feel right away when I was before the mast and cocked me comes out to get there. But it seems like the difference it made longer for thing happened to China. Because China not before the scrapping at their self. Not nice at all. And I
think I like being a liar and you certainly don't have any. I want to ask one of the question no impression no is for example in the Eastern European countries that there is quite a large bureaucratic community quite a large government which is somewhat but one doesn't see it in China. Several saying after I got back if it exists it's certainly invisible. But you believe that there is such a privileged community associated with the apparatus of the government. Yeah ok maybe straight answer questions that we do have a relative who is quite high officer. Very interesting you know. He does have a complex and I have special housing. Yes this is a different complex kind a high level and could
cement building three three three stories with a basement duplex but inside is very simple. He doesn't have any fancy furniture. He would have the typical Chinese chair with the two big arm rests and one interesting point. He he does have a a maid but then call her maid they call her my mother would probably know but they're kind of like a Friend Connect Hosking basically you and family before and maybe you wouldn't want in 20 years with them. Oh yes and then impressed us as I arrived. She also heard so much about. And that the housekeeper said I cut my profit in lost brother. And they call him the tool Mr. Cutter he is the number two in the family. SANDARA wants her to buy a small car and she cannot find
it. I just came from yes trying to but I couldn't find anyone to actually come by in the friendship shop. I felt awful. I don't think you missed anything. I hope you don't start serving it in your restaurant. It's like you're like get that money. So I think if I don't get enough to drink you know that you know his children also work in factories they don't have any special privileges to go to universities. I think the more you know treated equally. Yes. You mention in the film that you were very interested in the change in women's rights in China have been tremendous advancement there. But at the same time I wonder if there isn't a lot of pull of the past in other words if you found a lot of male chauvinism still operating in China. I think the older age woman kind of like a. Sister in Law My sister only went yesterday and another round left
in the attic in a month ago now. Oh my God they're going to be out there walking the others didn't have but time on for their community. I've become their into Katie if you have any feeling that that they were on easy about this sudden you know this really almost on traumatic transition from a very traditional role of women to one without considerably more equality between the sexes than Massachusetts. Did you have anybody you know was troubled by that transition. I don't think so because I knew a woman where a video referee that time because a day cannot be independent. So sometimes a while. To have spread in a half hour have a minute passed and then you watch
what I saw. She cannot do anything because the law they did not protect her and also she cannot be independent. So not everybody saw it for THE has spread and I think why in love with a man that you can say OK then your death cult because he can live on her own. So that is the everyday kind of good feeling off it I was surprised at how the initials sometimes of both the husband and the wife were how little they saw each other. They eat their breakfast lunch and dinner at their own. Canteens and sometimes I didn't go home for to sleep that night of sleep at work. I feel that it is important to the country. It's not what you like and I could be in many cases a formula for a happy marriage but what about the what about the women of your age. Terms of intimacy with your generation.
Well we did talk quite a bit there. They asked me questions for instance about what girls wore here about dating. We didn't talk about women's liberation and what about the point where I was talking the other day about the terribly antiseptic relationships between the sexes. In China. Or is this something that doesn't exist. I think it is visible to us because of course I know a different a different kind of relationship with them there. And meeting other sex is a social level is more prominent. But over there it's it's really accepted
because they're not used to any other way they don't know any other that it's something that they can't. And I was actually shocked I didn't. You know I've stood up to people in the all my travels who are going to report the story. Because I spent three days with the family and can't. And I was very impressed by how close they were because only what five years ago four years ago these same young people were breaking up everything in China during the Cultural Revolution. But this young son and this family who had an opportunity to go to university was asked by his father not to go because his father had to take a trip someplace. He was going to be away for three months. And he asked his son to stay in the family and his son gave up the opportunity to go to university. For that reason. How did you come to be with him. Well. I asked to spend some time with the family because I felt that what I had been seeing was all sort of model communes and model
factories and things like that and I want to get a little closer to the bone. And they said OK that's terribly unfortunate written reportorial instinct which happily I'm free. My my my impression is that if you haven't seen the beaten track you better see that first. Then you get off the beaten track. But I spoke to a young fellow who had served in the People's Liberation Army. And of course it's a very arduous thing to do and I said what was the hardest thing. He said well the hardest thing was working in the fields and planting the vegetables because in the army they make their own vegetables and things I suppose I can understand that because in high school every week you have to do that as training as part of your normal academic training. Yes. So I didn't pay any attention to that and I just wonder how much attention is paid to somebody else when the young face of that you know when their children might play possum Violet will get you're going to want to put in get registered to pray for Anderson and not yelling and not
have a good time. So wait a part of story and also what other people are not doing enough. Can you really make a city Chinese understand what the life is like for a peasant in the countryside. Can they really that's what they're trying to do and I wonder if they can really do that. Yeah I did try the title for that they say that people are not more main goal with the way that people are living in the country. And in other hand they were being more eat your cake and so they kind of the way that they should take it one of the things in which there is agreement is that there is quite a gap in the living standards as between the cities in the country the country is much poorer you know away some come live in the country you are better to live in the city was that you know a country farmer I can understand if they have rock. And land they own their land and if a little bit is that they try to plough yes have it. Yeah that's why they need it.
And also their own house but not in the city as I understand it I would think that statistics perhaps are against you in that choice and this is one place where the where the even the Chinese would. A firm statistical evidence that that the standard of living in the countryside is rather substantially below that in the cities. Lots of people you forget talent don't have to worry up either his income I used to live in because he had to take care that by the government anyway. So when they were before all the trouble like a war lot everything did give them more than Mixi in the country. Thing in the city. That's why the country is really it's almost empty because nothing after they left. What's happened to all these former landlords and the people in the beautiful rich houses on the west the western hills of taking in things like this are they in good condition are they being treated decently or are they out of favor with the regime and already pending. Yes but he is doing. That's what it appears you snogged I should not say who he
is quite he is doing because out by the height he did it before like I went off on my driving lost brother and he was everyday rich rent he owns a factory made it big fraction he offered to his fracture not to before 10am on government talk All right so then he is not a bad man so he still respect those you do know he has a levy in the nice compound in picking retires and we retire. Yes certainly. When it came here I think you know I was in the pinkies of some of the officials. In one and I couldn't understand where they were telling me about their dedication to being like everybody else and they were thinking oh you know you. Are laughing and there are some come to have to
protect you. And I thought I heard a knock. And when they have got into hot water and they sleep and you know many people do it because it's a question. And they say wait but of course it's only small and it's not that big press not sort of like to use it to take our kind of work the time they don't have to work if you have money but you know I noticed that along with these long fingernails came the Times not too often but a very good plate of cloth and good tailoring for the tunic which was the same as everybody else's tunic but much more nicely done. And other signs that going back to your question really are interested is there a hidden
fear on your credit wheat. I wonder if this isn't a sign of of such an elite sign of a group of people who live a little bit nicer than everybody else that before are not now. I think maybe definitely not so much different. Not before say I can go to hospital he cannot go there he has no money and not everybody has a stick he can't go to hospital. Get Paid consent is R and B I fly basic That is a part of 5.5 cents here. So a few times I do have a little better life. They don't have this life on account of someone else's. So in other words are our uncle our uncles brother. He couldn't get Matai. And he did have a card to his disposal but he was very careful about using
it so he didn't take advantage of these things that he had. He did have a housekeeper but it was like part of the family. And you know his wife when in the kitchen just as often as his housekeeper did. As I watched an operation that a lady had ovarian cyst removed near about 30 of us and I was the only overseas Chinese watching this and when it was over the cyst was removed in 22 minutes under acupuncture. She applauded us was turning to me and said that's better than the Chinese. I know whatever defense you can enter for China. Cigarettes. I actually quit smoking as a result of. This. But here comes that fellow. It was slick.
They are under some sort of very light sweet and sour. He's still pretty. You'll have to soften the pang. And if I don't have a left coast Gabbers that was before the. Company that's a sadist. Joy was made possible in part from the Ford
Foundation. A.
Joyce Chen's China
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WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)
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Episode Description
Joyce Chen's China with Helen and Stephen Chen. Program chronicles Joyce Chen and her children's visit to the People's Republic of China in 1973. From the May 1973 WGBH Program Guide: We don't ordinarily present home movies on television, but no apologies are needed in this case. Joyce Chen's family trip to China represented a unique opportunity: to see the country that until last year remained a total mystery to almost all Americans, and to see it through the eyes of someone who grown up there-someone whose relatives still live there-as well as through the eyes of her children, who don't share her memories. Following the film, Joyce, Helen, and Stephen Chen sit down to dinner to discuss their observations with John Kenneth Galbraith (Professor of Economics, Harvard University) and Newsweek's Edward Klein (Foreign Editor, Newsweek magazine). The program is principally composed of footage shot in China by Stephen Chen who had taken a crash course in shooting 16mm film at WGBH prior to the trip. The journey by train included stops in Canton, Shanghai, Suzhou, Hang-chow, Peking, and Yading. Subjects filmed and discussed include: a visit to sandalwood fan factory, an embroidery factory, Chinese cuisine, acrobats, schools, hospitals, open-air markets, doll-making, radish harvesting, and visits to the Red Star Commune, an eldercare facility, the Forbidden City and the Great Wall. Written by Mary Feldhaus-Weber; produced and directed by Fred Barzyk.
Episode Description
This item is part of the Chinese Americans section of the AAPI special collection.
Food and Cooking
Chinese culture; Peking, China; Hang-chow, China; Suzhou, China; Shanghai, China; Canton, China; Yading, China; Chinese Cooking; Chen, Joyce, 1917-1994
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Director: Barzyk, Fred
Writer: Galbraith, John Kenneth
Writer: Chen, Joyce, 1917-1994
Writer: Feldhaus-Weber, Mary
Writer: Klein, Edward
Writer: Chen, Helen
Writer: Chen, Stephen
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Identifier: e1154453632bbfe445da5b99c80243782e707a6f (ArtesiaDAM UOI_ID)
Format: video/quicktime
Color: Color
Duration: 00:00:00
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Chicago: “Joyce Chen's China,” 1973-05-20, WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed April 25, 2024,
MLA: “Joyce Chen's China.” 1973-05-20. WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. April 25, 2024. <>.
APA: Joyce Chen's China. Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (GBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from