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and is it a hero sixteenth century spain portugal piece of the action they may try to get into the act at information suddenly we're concerned guidance with the exploration activities times they are the english were concerned about exploration in the new world in the early six and two years of the sixteenth century and they were concern for a number of reasons i think first and foremost they were concerned for commercial reasons they could see the wealth that spain and portugal world scaring from the caribbean basin from latin america the gold the silver and i think what concerned the english was the extent to which this wealth might will change the
balance of power in europe itself and that concerned with the balance of power in europe i think informed english thing stranded english thinking about the new world from the sixteenth century to the ear of the american revolution trade has to be from the beginning to the end of english kill interest in the world a paramount consideration secondly of course intelligence mr saba but secondly i think we shouldn't underestimate the extent to which sixteenth century english people were also concerned with exporting they'll civilization or very construed as being the most civilized values and chile after the reformation protestant that used to the new world and again i think we can see here are concerned with competition with preventing the spread of roman catholicism to the new world and among the peoples of the world
thank you they stay disciplined well i think the main concern in the sixteenth century of forty four the english was that position in the adult world itself and up rivalries with spain this business especially after the protestant reformation the reality of war with the roman catholic cause i think informed english the english sense of themselves as a people as a fascination with the old world and subsequently in the new four ok great
but i think that after the wars of the roses the political turmoil in the england of the late fifteenth century in the sixteenth century english we're concerned to build a nation and to want to construct an identity as a nation to but formulate their sense of themselves their identity and dispose of that search for an identity to construct an identity they tended to measure themselves against other people's and other nations that they encountered in the old world and increasingly across in the new world and the extent to which the english judge the other people's they encountered by a yardstick which set in english though his english morality english civilization at the center of the poems and the outer rings roger like at this turns stone into it into poland the epicenter was england
the ocean brings all that people being threatened to the point where the nation's and people's they encountered and to varying to grace that those nations and peoples could be made to conform or not conform to the english ideal of civilization and it was a concept of slavery in the initial vision of the world it was just no this is going to create this was a low the english certainly can do that by the late fifteenth century the spanish and portuguese were enslaving west africans within their own domestic economies in spain and portugal but the english certainly did not pass at arch our own their exploitation of the new world with a future enslaving anyone if by enslavement is meant to finding a human as a piece of property remember them the world isn't that in many different types of slavery many different
definitions of what on freedom of what bondage and trails certainly the english envisaged some degree of own freedom in the settlements in the new world that freedom would have been very very similar indeed to the situation out of many people in england itself people who served as the servants of one sort or another but they did not even though they knew of spain and portugal as enslavement of africans in spain and portugal even though they knew of the enslavement of west africans in the spanish and portuguese colonies they knew if they are developing international slave trade the english did not set out to emulate and that aspect of the iberian experiencing the world
i think the english encounter began to encourage a native americans and west africans some more of a simultaneously in the middle years of the of the sixteenth century but developer all the different images rather different stereotypes all of these two people's in the case of native americans watch the english and other european poles had to explain it was hunted these people actually but that region in the world what with their origins and one of the favored explanations was that native americans were one of the lost tribes of israel and that native americans could scarcely be blamed for the fact that they had as it were and in the mists of time being lost from the prices of european civilization when europeans continental europeans when the english actually saw native americans they saw people who for various reasons they thought were
not in tommy dissimilar from themselves in terms of their skin color in terms of their facial features in terms of the head and so on and that these people could be made to conform into a stereotype into an image that really suited to beat out the english these people the english folk huge could never become equal as english people but they could've through english tuition through town there is devices be brought further up the laptop or civilization as the english word defining civilization you're describing
the new world of the land of the world could offer the english was depicted as offering the english endless opportunity both the land itself and the persistent hope dreams of the english and other european cause that's the waterways of the new world lights provides northwest passage to the riches of the oregon to japan to china to the very lucrative trade all of asia that dream persistent european fought through the seventeenth century but it was also hoped that the peoples of the new world could help feed the english to secure to reap different kinds of wealth from the land itself the very very important component english thinking was that that native americans could help them to exploit the informant that native americans would provide the ncaa provide english with various natural products with schemes with
pelts all sorts of commodities that the english and other europeans what was seated at the same time as the as the english through trade through these contacts could elevate native americans up the further up the level of civilization and of course the protestant religion would be a very very important part of that process of civilization with things differently late fifteenth century when the english first crossed the atlantic i think there were two very important kinds of of propaganda one that was what we might describe as a popular prop and the kinds of stories and tales the oral tradition that sailor his
notions the there is a huge obstacle well the sending of our ships across the atlantic to explore the wealth of the new world really was in itself a very hazardous and expensive operation the investment record to fit coach one of these vessels to pay the crew and so what i thought was quite enormous although you if three of which succeeded and enormous wealth enormous returns could be expected the financial investment became that much more ignore most when the english decided as they could get him to decide in the middle years of the sixteenth century to establish permanent settlements in the new world as opposed to
trading for the trading stations with the and then the question was how do you persuade english people to cross the atlantic to settle in this wilderness they are i think that's a propaganda became very very important to secure investment capital to try and persuade people to take their lives in their hands to to literally go to the to the unknown the propagandists of the late sixteenth century were also concerned to persuade someone else that the settlement of the new world was very much in england's interest in that someone else was the ngo ish crime the english crown never itself simply financial responsibility for colonization but the crimes before she had to be secured before any settlement could be established so beginning in the nucleus of the sixteenth century we get a
quote enormous amount of literature written a box sometimes by those who'd visited the new world sometimes by those who happen to the english secured copies all the continental european travel accounts translated these into in into english and this propaganda was to be a very very important component in the jewish settlement of america from the late sixteenth century from the time of robotic to the funding of the last english politically of georgia here it is i think the initial funding of jamestown and wanted the auspices of the virginia company a joint stock company that this was primarily a business venture and the investors as in any motor company and investors in
the virginia company paid many in order to finance the very first and indications of a absurd close to a hard and secure than provisions to support them from england itself so first and foremost it was a pretty i think a profit motive on the part of those two who invested in the company and those who ran the company but at the same time could that was also a civilizing if i can use that word to mention to this venture fair number of anglican clergymen went with the first indications pocket costs to service the religious needs of the settlers themselves but also to try and spread protestantism among the nation of the inhabitants of the shadow of the chesapeake region so there was this tension sense there were two two worlds present something that was a part of this huge judge in the new world it's
two visions two goals i don't think these two goals necessarily would've been seen by content prius as either intentionally or in competition or else be incompatible to make money united nations i don't think there was a tension between the commercial and the religious civilizing ambitions of the english i don't think they were in competition i don't think they were necessarily to be regarded by contemporaries as being in tension or as being incompatible with the word slavery
well certainly the english title of jamestown for the best part of the century about slavery in the iberian peninsula and spain and portugal and they'd known that spain and portugal could insulate west africans in the new world and by definition of course they knew about the african national african slave trade or flow of the english were in top concern to emulate spain and the new world to secure well funded by two in homes that position in the old world of age of forty various reasons not least after the reformation or religious reason so much to criticize about the spanish exploitation of the new world and tips and its peoples was there was slavery or lack of freedom service they were involved in something that was a part of english society or the idea of itself
that's their idea of themselves the civil society can you cry the elites english you are this society their ideal english society was one which was strictly a society which was strictly stick a hierarchical and ordered society some were born to rule and others were born to be ruled out of the society that's probably unique perspective offered new a significant possibility of mobility of changing your rank in society no what the realities of life in like
prisoners or listeners a sense of what they could bleed only sectors of the chance to leave their main priority was not we have racial slavery but walls with staying alive the death rates in jamestown were totally a pool in and hey it's as much for the virginia company that they persisted with this particular colony on the number of groans but not least commercial grounds one could argue that they would've been sensible to have abandoned that colony as early as possibly sixty eight sixty nine but through their propaganda through that the broader vision of what the english intended to achieve in the world they continue to secure investment capital they continue to be able to persuade people to cross the atlantic to jamestown but i think the simplest themselves their top priority was
not perhaps with thinking about the ideal english society but was with how do we stay alive how do we survive in this epidemiologically foreign and which what for europeans was eight death trap and there's a great deal of time searching for some kind of stable crop can do with the virginia company didn't envisage commercial agriculture as being the source of wealth that would stem from this particular settlement they envisage and again the spanish accent was very very important i envisaged ago and so they envisage it water passage to the orient and captain john smith spent some of his time haggling atop field setting up the james river i believe it was in search of japan and and
and china actually didn't find china and japan i think one of the points that did become critical to captain john smith was the amount of land in the chesapeake this by endless commodity and subsequently that fact this awareness of the availability of land was to be of decisive importance in shaping the subsequent history all the junior and we said oh oh maryland but originally the virginia company intended that after such a short time in jamestown the colonists would be able to grow enough food just for their own needs but that the exports back to england would not be of foodstuffs would not be agricultural commodities they would be for those pelts anecdotes that native americans supplied them with and the major transformation of the junior would come into sixteen tencent to cater to sixty intense when everyone began to realize that that wasn't
any gold silver in virginia or if that was the english couldn't find it that the waterways of the chesapeake did not lead to the lucrative trade the orient so some means have to be found of securing an export commodity and not least because of the bay prawn knowledge of spain success and growing tobacco elsewhere in the new world after sometimes experimentation the english in jamestown discovered it brought you to back over the ground there and it was to be critically important that the coup was the crop ailes seized upon by the english the amounts of land for cod to grow tobacco as compared with the amount of land for example it needs to grow sugar or the amount of land that you needed to grow other agricultural crops
tobacco was to have an enormous influence over the subsequent settlement and development of virginia and in the sixteen countries and sixteen fresh taste it the dual impact of tobacco was firstly own land of last night's atlanta but we needed to grow tobacco and the extent to which this brought the english settlers who time when tobacco prices were sky hard work patience too to secure the votes they needed to grow tobacco this brought them into direct conflict with the native americans who happen to occupy the land the second important to launch created by tobacco in this exchange twenties was the demand for labor and at this point the search was a virginia remember this terrible informant for europeans very few women in the colony she had simply wasn't reproducing itself to satisfy its own labor needs so where do you get the label you need to make money from
tobacco and hopefully return home to england a rich person one alternative rock but of course with the native americans why didn't the english and sixteen twenties tend to native americans for the workforce they need it and i think the main reason for that had to do with what the english regarded as the and deficiencies of native americans as well as potential of what his native americans could easily of stone treatment of their own and other people's and video beyond the english not ruled out the possibility of native americans as a workforce in the tobacco fields it was to england itself that the junior coaches challenge for labor and the sixteen twenties and sixteen fresh eyes and that may bubbles available partly because of downturns in the english economy itself people and especially young people in search of work in search of opportunity to the junior
which they did it mainly as indentured servants and that meant that they had agreed to serve their last for a certain number of years and at the end of that point they would be given their freedom and possibly at a plot of land possibly agricultural tools possibly at some point because some money but for the sixteen twenty sixteen thirties virginia ponchos looked to england for family but they did not look to west africa but having said that of course the famous comment john rolfe that in the summer of sixty nine team and the dutchman war brought twenty africans to virginia shouldn't we just believe that those africans were immediately enslaved by the english if by that we mean assigned to a particular legal category can't agree that defined these people as pieces of property
the actual legal and the social status of these first africans arrived in virginia was very very ambiguous indeed and sixteen thirties and forties we find examples of friendly africans in virginia which has led some historians to argue that these first arrivals were treated very much as english serpents would be treated that has freed after sept ten years now that they're here the english civil war was going to have an enormous effect on patterns of trade patterns of migration and during the english civil war and sixteen forties and there was an understandable reasons perhaps it reluctance on the moon
because the cost of that during the sixty and forties conditions oh i'm sorry i'm sorry right right that was the line that was funny by the middle years of the seventeenth century the virginia population was beginning to reproduce itself but the leader needs of tobacco could continue to be
remarkably high and still the virginia population couldn't wholly satisfied sleeper sleep needs but by the sixteenth fifties the sixteen sixties the punches of virginia had a model which they were able to ambulate ninety as early as the sixteenth thirties the english in the caribbean had already crossed the line from endangered to in fallen tree servitude the english in barbados in st kitts by the sixteenth that he's already satisfying beginning to satisfy the boat their label requirements by recourse to in to west african workers with african workers who they enslaved shipments society
should be most contemporary observers content create content visitors to barbados coleman should that those who had settled there is english people who've settled in barbados sixteen thirty sixteen forties went to barbados for one reason and one reason only and that was to secure well but the settlers did not go to barbados to create a new england and they went to secure wealth that this was depicted as gerry hadden mystic society a society that all english according to these visitors perhaps did not get the heights all were indeed english people consider to be stability and civilization and these pom poms those who buy the middle of the century were growing sugar again had enormous labor
requirements began their demographic profile was such that they couldn't reproduce themselves provide that labour the location of barbados but minutes that span from comparatively empty date it was right on the trip on the route taken by it maybe dutch slave traders from west africa to the caribbean and barbados prove to be a quote logical stopping off point for those slave traders to re provision that ships and increasingly to sell they're caught they're human focus too should apologise transformation was routine for them to suddenly be racing this institution would name in virginia racial slavery so they compared with the
british sugar islands developed comparatively slowly hand by three sixteen twenty sixteen first is that one can see evidence that the africans liberty in virginia are being discriminated against in in various ways but it took the english in virginia to the sixties seventies and sixteen beijing is before they began to devise an eight sleep stations for the africans are already in the colony but the sixteen seventies and sixty nations would be a time of growing slave imports oil imports of west africans into the chesapeake and it is no coincidence that the growth of the west african population coincided with the elite conscious bushes to define a particular category for pulp for its new workforce
mr blankley end of the seventeenth century by a deep sixty eight in sixty nine she is a concern with civility was of paramount importance to many virginia ponchos and part of that concern is reflected what they regarded as the varied of rocketry few of them that was held by elite english people and during the late seventeenth century elite virginia ponchos began to began to ask themselves are we any civilized society if not wachter we need to do to become a civilized to saute up in a civilized english society and increasingly we find that on and the concern was was paid to education it was no coincidence that the college of william and mary was founded when it did this college are replicated and in many respects the education of an english gentleman in
england itself this book fb so we were talking about they call it was
george bush but i think there are a number of reasons why the colony of georgia includes last name and american colony was founded in the early seventeenth thirties first the english were concerned with defense on the southern frontier and particularly with defending their increasingly valuable rice colony of south carolina and so georgia was envisaged as serving a metrical was that would be a buffer between carolina and the spanish forces in florida secondly there was any charitable aspect to the colonnade the founders of the colony intended that poor english people would be sent to this colony they would be given land they would be given tuesday that they could become useful citizens
useful subjects in georgia they could improve themselves through the virtual work and as part of that they can contribute to the wellbeing of england both as soldiers and as planned for months the reason why racial slavery was prohibited in georgia was partly due to no tree reasons spain was offering freedom to any enslaved person from british america from the mainland chinese who could reach spanish spanish lines the english founders of torture recognize that i had the presence of enslaved africans in the economy would be potentially very very dangerous indeed but these africans could be expected to run away and to rebel in search of their own freedom that they would run away they would prevail week oh without spanish encouragement to do so but
another reason why the founders of georgia excludable sought to exclude slavery was because of its effect on the morality of the white settlers the white settlers was sent their day expenses across the atlantic were paid they were sent there to work and to improve themselves and the founders of torture came to believe that these the court would not work and improve themselves if i owned slaves were brought to the cup brought the colony but these are sectors would become robin like the south carolinian hunters would become lacy would become a leader would be prepared to live off the backs of other people wrote them through their own efforts and that's it as character
yes designer ford who was a member of the royal african company as opposed to any other english gentleman but i think that uncle forbes opposition to slavery and opposed the new world his opposition to slavery in georgia had to do with the specific functions of that colony oglethorpe network i argued that such racial slavery should be prohibited anywhere or everywhere else in north america no one could say that iowa had oglethorpe with on such a view in the seventeen thirties and early seventy four she's british funding for his colon it would've been withdrawn even earlier than that and it was so there were good pragmatic reasons why even had oglethorpe he opposed to to slavery elsewhere in america he would have remained silent on the question
i believe there's no evidence that oglethorpe really was opposed to slavery upside of his one experimental colony was so in this sense one could say that in a specific place and a specific time james oglethorpe was anti slavery but was james oglethorpe as it were a french all west africans are you famous son taste james local thoughts involvement in the freedom from slavery of the west african owner job ben solomon and are deeply uncool for its involvement in that in that particular case stemmed from the fact that the job ben solomon was an elite west africa and all deeply a gentleman if you like with whom oglethorpe could if not exactly identify he could in this case see a christmas carriage of justice but there's no evidence the toll that james oglethorpe would have gone to that for a field hand restaurants in south carolina
carolina panthers in the first instance given the situation to the south of them south carolina race conscious we're pretty pleased by the finding of this coalition the south which in the case of a possible spanish invasion could be expected to act as the first line of defense increasingly though south carolinians came to and especially after they were pushing ash and seventeen forty two and the attempted spanish invasion was turned back i think of hope and at that point georgia gets a disability functioned very very well the seth character names increasingly looked at the rich roy swamps of torture very very envious eyes and wish to expand their transit operations to the size of the savannah river and through the seventeen forties they supported those early settlers of georgia who themselves were coming to believe that they couldn't
survive economically vital and prosper in this particular informant with being allowed the use of slate workers by seventeen fifty the founders of torture had and being forced by an enormous amount of political pressure and stop that emanating from tortured soul from south carolina infants as character among his supporters in london to abandon their attempt to exclude slavery from georgia it was perfectly possible for slaves to be smuggled across the savannah river to be a lunch and it cost to georgia planters and in practice there was little that the founders of george in london could do to police the situation the south carolina punches themselves were hungry for polio
in the seventeen thirties and seventy four she's and the they could but with an eye on the main chance they could see ways six expanding their wealth was slavery to the commission including georgia and that is exactly what happened uncertainty fifties and he would you know show has characters little of ours and i wonder if you can images but francis le show was one of the first anglican missionaries to work in south carolina and like some other of his anglican colleagues in the plantation colonies of the world when he arrived to take up his his office he was absolutely
shocked by two things firstly by the physical maltreatment of enslaved people and secondly by what he considered to be in spiritual mistreatment by their supposedly anglican most as mistresses the denial of christianity to enslaved people was a constant theme in visuals journalist in his letters that he wrote back to london never seemed to have occurred to nurture the hour but west african people's might prefer their own religious belief systems to christianity that he was trying to offer them christianity the anglican church walls couldn't confront stewart a certainly in the plantation colonies and indeed in some
of her colon is sort of the new world we have i hate long standing question once the criminal governments began to enact rules that the phalange west africans as slaves as pieces of property what happened if the enslaved person and that paint the christian could one christian hold a non christian theme bondage in perpetual servitude if the whole incident that was no but then of course west africa has had every reason to whether sincere or not to adopt the religious beliefs of their masters and mistresses in the hope of securing their freedom the possibility of that conversion to christianity might result in the freedom of the enslaved people meant that the majority of all rice sponsors indigo come to sugar planters were absolutely opposed to any untoward attempts to christianize
their slaves you know i think that what i am their leisure who like many of the anglican poetry oak ridge in the plantation colonies on that indeed display and our concern they come they have they assumed that once presented that we've been pushing a protestant christianity that west africans would abandon their existing religious the systems and structures in favor of that form of protestantism on many what happened to the majority of west africans did not do that and the in the early eighteenth century but i think that the visuals journal shows us one particular anglican cleric who in
his own pulpit pets rather patronizing way did and empathize with the clear physical brutality of slavery in his goose creek parish and who also was was wracked with not much luck with guilt but with frustration that he could couldn't he simply couldn't persuade his white parishioners his white slave owning parishioners to act as christian masters and mistresses and attend to the spiritual welfare of those who depended upon them thank you by
slavery was permitted in georgia and legally permitted in georgia in seventeen fifty one we'd be an addict hate it was as if the earlier discourses about racial slavery in the colony had never taken place and there was no new anti slavery tradition stemming from the discussions the discourses of the seventeen thirties and seventeen forties in some ways not just the children of the seventeen sixties and early seventies seventies was an extension of the south carolina race economy during a seventeen fifties and seventies sixties a great many south carolina ponchos and their slaves crossed the savannah river took up plans established themselves as rice ponchos by the middle of the seventeenth fifties dominated the government of georgia enacted a slave code which was almost verbatim that enacted in the aftermath of the stoner rebellion in south carolina so in many ways the georgia of state seventeen sixties early
seventies seventies of course it had its political autonomy as corny but i think it was economically and in some ways socially an extension of it's the south carolina lowcountry where they would be deeply rare rare minority think that by the middle of the eighteenth century this in seventeen fifties seventeen seventeen six we can say that the colonists a hat others had created for themselves and i didn't achieve which despite the not an increasing because the polls have in a character of any of the colonies including several southern colonies think you've defined as an english identity they would have
regarded themselves as english people express their sense of english there in material culture express the essence of english does in their political structures the political behavior and certainly in their legal and judicial system's end and behavior increasingly though but that's only with the benefit of hindsight we could say that through the seventeenth eighteenth centuries but they were also beginning to develop will be very gradually slowly and perhaps not at all self consciously and american identity singing no
civil society graciously by seventeen sixty one could say that of the english colonies in in on the north american mainland and in the caribbean and really did conformed to the almost the average one of the original purposes that they are english funders had intended for them these colonies or beaten varying degrees of enormous commercial and trading importance to england and they import and screw during the first half of the eighteenth century and was one of the reasons why isn't infected and seventies england would be so reluctant to lose a lot of those cold days many off the other patients
to the sixteenth century english had all of america had to look ahead to some degree of being lost over that over that dictates a but suddenly i watch one could say it was in the novel was the tension that difficult relationship that developed but certainly hadn't been intended by the sixteenth century byzantine century founders of the english colonies the tension between racial slavery and white free the polling questions you're in i think it's important to remember that the expenses expansion of england in the five sixteenth century embrace not only three
of the americas but also embraced african protecting west africa in the early sixteenth century the english centre trading voyages to west africa not to trade in west african people's but to trade with them and through the sixteenth century that would remain an aspect of english contacts with west africa but by the fifteenth fourteenth fifteenth fifties there were there was in england who thought that they could see the market in the new world not causing any english colonies because there were militia colonies but they could see in the portuguese and in the spanish colonies a great demand for labor elaine of a particular car into that was already being supplied by certain other european traders the commodity all laid out of west africa and the isis most famously almost infamously the one of the earliest if not the earliest
english on sea captain option to get involved in this particular trade was join john hawkins and his voyages i think there's a number of very important questions and point to certain ambiguities in english thinking and impish behavior of these are the west africans on the one hand the theme of trade with west africa on the other hand the theme of trade in west africans to some extent the success of the laws of hawkins particular endeavor depended upon the willingness of the spanish to trade we the english to receive the labour from english ships from english vessels and in some ways but one could say that as relations between spain and england deteriorated the second told all the sixteenth century then that led to an willingness of spain to conscience any form of trade a lot with the with the
Series
Africans in America
Episode Number
101
Episode
The Terrible Transformation
Raw Footage
Interview with Betty Wood, Professor of History, Oxford University. 1 of 2
Contributing Organization
WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/15-125q815h99
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Description
Betty Wood is interviewed about the propaganda to settle the New World, the Europeans' reaction to Native Americans, why the English did not use Native Americans for the work force, the early status of Africans in Virginia, Francis Le Jau's attitude towards the institution of slavery, Christianity and slavery, Le Jau's journals and Christianity, and Oglethorpe, the founder of Georgia.
Date
1998-00-00
Topics
Women
History
Race and Ethnicity
Subjects
American history, African Americans, civil rights, slavery, abolition, Civil War
Rights
(c) 1998-2017 WGBH Educational Foundation
Media type
Moving Image
Duration
00:54:09
Embed Code
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Credits
Release Agent: WGBH Educational Foundation
AAPB Contributor Holdings
WGBH
Identifier: Wood_Betty_01_merged_SALES_ASP_h264.mp4 (unknown)
Duration: 0:54:09
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Citations
Chicago: “Africans in America; 101; The Terrible Transformation; Interview with Betty Wood, Professor of History, Oxford University. 1 of 2,” 1998-00-00, WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed November 30, 2020, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-15-125q815h99.
MLA: “Africans in America; 101; The Terrible Transformation; Interview with Betty Wood, Professor of History, Oxford University. 1 of 2.” 1998-00-00. WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. November 30, 2020. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-15-125q815h99>.
APA: Africans in America; 101; The Terrible Transformation; Interview with Betty Wood, Professor of History, Oxford University. 1 of 2. Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip-15-125q815h99