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oursummer of judgment the watergate hearings is made possible inpart by a grant from the corporation for public broadcastingfor the government or novella bythe headquarters of the democratic nationalcommittee the court of lawthey said they'll of one hundredthousand dollars each or two former nixon reelectionorgan in court theformer government where you are youare accepted the resignations of tomorrow because wewere alltwo of the finest there can be no
i began by telling the president that there was acancer growing on the presidency what did the president knowand when did he know itthe senate caucus room it's a square room a littlepompous but practical just across from the capitol on constitution avenueo n charles of bell in this room senate committeesinvestigated the sort of embarrassments in our political history from teapot dome to joe mccarthyin here ten summers ago the senate select committee on presidential campaignactivities held hearings on the darkest passage in american politicswatergate it started in nineteen seventy two as a boy in the campaign headquarters
police court stuff but the burglars turned out to have white house connections theeffort to cover up those connections became a conspiracy in the white house to obstructjustice and the place the president above all when the truth came outpresident richard nixon resigned to get at the truth of watergate thesenate committee brought to this room are remarkable for a vote burglars and fixers andmenaced by ending including the president's principal assistance and a former attorneygeneral the committee that examined them was a fascinating collection itself abottle senator who seem somehow church run out of southern folklore they've got a slew ofconstitutional crisis with country we're beyond the personalities in thewhodunit aspect of the story watergate was about big themes theconstitutional separation of powers the protection of individual rights the function of afree press the people of the united states were caught up in all this to the degree that might seem
unlikely anyone who didn't experience that day after day week after week wewatch the drama played out in one disclosure after another it was all ontelevision and through television the people became a part of the process of judgmentin the summer of nineteen seventy three so let's go back to earlynineteen seventy three president nixon was settling into his second term he wonthe seventy two election by a landslide in spite of a potentially troublesome incident duringthe campaign the rest of the burglars on a political spying missions insidedemocratic national headquarters at the watergate office building the nixon managers deniedany part in such monzon and most of the news media loss interest after a whilebut some gritty investigative reporters on a stubborn dirge dancer actorkept pursuing evidence of white house involvement in the break in watergatewouldn't go away so the senate probably by the democratic majority leader mike
mansfield set up a special investigating committee looking around for a chairmanwho wouldn't seem too partisan or self seeking than steel was drawn to a seventysix year old senator from north carolina sam irvinwas the man for the job he was a democrat but conservative a former judgehis fellows senators knew him as a nonpartisan authority on the constitution and the babeland as wily old country boy is error came out of north carolinachairman is undergoing up from time to time that he'sjust a country lawyer he'll miss to say he graduated fromharvard law school with honorsit'sbboth
yeah i went to mourn him to north carolina to visit senator irving now eightysix years old retired person recollections of that historic summer of fortyseven why you had to come to be chairman of thewatergate committee like as human beings out the windowand he wanted to investigate the bass and i'll want to be there with one ofthe first thing he did was allow formembership among the democrats that there was a spike in the world ofthe puzzle about itand also i haven't done that they want thethree reasons the virus was more innovation there is alive audience in the second was out of the most on our visit thecredit is in and that that wasn't the right because thatvice presidential residence what did you
expect to discover the beginning i think you would reach the presidenti mean no matter how the president was able to do what we would find that there aresome of these overzealous aids adults there about the political basesdid it down and you slowly are of the moment that the president wasn't wellit's the issues on that questionwas no not only that with the use of all the long termand all about the officers butthat it was so they all havepsychological rest of this issue a statementand it said on the second floor that he would not have itis a vote for waves but i have tobe investigated
and they have any information aboutthat the other fact founders on the watergate committeeintentionally were chosen from among senators who were not especially well known or outwardlyambitious for harrow office for the democrats besides urban herman talmadge ofgeorgia joseph montoya of new mexico and daniel in away of all why i try my best to convince my colleagues that we were notprosecutors some are we do the impression of the people in theunited states that we were out to determine the guilt or innocence of personsinvolve that was not our job three republican side on the committee with the fourdemocrat up incoming howard baker tiger as a trial lawyer intennessee became vice chairman other republicans were edward gurney of floridawho emerged as president nixon's chief defender on the committee at lowell weicker ofconnecticut a maverick who's sense of moral outrage came out in very tough questions
i think a lot of people feel because the tough questions or oppose that i start out not beingquote against richard nixon warned nixon dictate ornot so little that took alot of learning over a lot of months before i got to the point where i felt that socialproblems for the president and presidents and sandbags but georgetownuniversity law professor who became the committee's chief counsel reflects on what the committeenewest and its investigation in march in april of nineteen seventy threethere was a newspaper report suggestingperhaps white house and all the little suggestion was no evidence noindication that could establish any relationship our investigationbegan there fred thompson a political friend of our bakers from tennesseewas the minority council this young republican came to washington taking the
hearings will last only about a month and assuming there wouldn't be much evidence of wrongdoingamong the higher ups at the white house well when i started i couldn't believe thatthe hearings were quite clear up any questions about who was involved in and it was not ingovernment certainly at the time there's no reason to believe the president or any of the peopleand had responsible positions on that dyson thompson recruited astaff of investigators that work around the clock and crowded offices in the senatebasement sorting out a tangle of leads and interviewing prospective witnessesgradually they began to piece together a complex and bizarre story of the rarityof campaign funds wiretaps and still more burglariesearly on a dispute developed over the order of witnesses to be put on the stand in thecaucus chair and there was some sentiment for calling the big names person living inupton they're really cargo under the horse's mouth the hormones ireland medalsand really fun what was there every day and you know there wasn't
a lot of sentiment that this was something that for the sake of the nation no one else shouldnot the red zone for so some thought to bill andsimilar but rather the middle of the road approach some others of thempurchase a measure they primarily wanted to go and kind of bottomedfrom the bottom to the top to bring in the year a lesser lights the witnesses andhe's accused of going to fall and after a discussion ofthe story which really does pursue i'mgigi nineteen seventy three after thetwo final months of preparation the hearings began the three commercial networksand public television were there with live coverage these would become the mostextensively televised congressional hearings before or since scottarmstrong the committee investigator remembers the stock when he walked into the room that first daywe walked into the hearing room and suddenly salt and was just it was a
circus that we hadn't expected i think all the service somewhat recoil from the notionthat the kind of public scrutiny given us in that committee and the way inwhich it looked into the white house that is very self conscious and one area who were fullyprepared to go to a ham senator irving brought down the gavela mother committed radical as long andall that the nation can proceed or getting the loans and now think about ournation has just don't want a copy of our missionwe will inquire into every fire and volley of reallyunrestrained by any we're aware that italymight ultimately texas the atmosphere that first day was like thefirst day of school is part ceremony on uncertainty nothing really heavyon the schedule reflecting their shoes build from the bottom plant the firstwitness was not a showstopper but one robert a little
well mr roberts oh please come to thewitness table he was the former office manager of the committee to reelect the president no discrete i would like to use this opportunity to make justone brief point i joined the staff of the committee for the reelection of the president more than twoyears ago because i believe in president nixon and insults and dreams for americathe public's fascination with watergate mounted by the day as the intensecoverage by the news media so than there were complaints from people who miss theirsoap operas at the the first week the networks began taking turns covering recessionslive robin for public televisionservice covered live in the daytime from washington and thenrebroadcast the hearings in primetime every night into the wee hoursaggressive investigative reporting in newspapers in mice and particularly the work
of bob woodward and carl bernstein of the washington post had laid the basis for the senateinvestigation as for the relatively new medium of television its importanceto these hearings to the process of public judgment cannot be overestimatedi wanted every american citizen to be able to hear and see thewitnesses for themselves and make their own judgments not have the judgment of somebody else andthe only way to do that they can come to the caucus room and see and hear the witness themselves is towatch it and the only thing we have today and god bless we haven't is intelligent iwas that and not because we want publicity for the committee but in order to be able tobring all the market into a democratic process which isthe working other congress and i work but it did work the public'scuriosity and concern were reflected early every morning and the lines that formed onconstitution avenue to get into the hearings watergate also was the talk of main streetfrom late august in that summer of nineteen seventy three millions of americans
sat in their living rooms and watch this remarkable story played out in the caucus room by realpeople some of whom became as familiar as the neighbors in the course of thehearing's over a million and a half letters poured into the committee most but not all werefavorable fairyland one of sam bases principal assistantswe were flooded with mail thousands of letters every every weekwe receive government there were two hundred and thirtythroughout the night and that the artist during the daymany people is going to perceive this to be a national client show with a cut in factafter questions that they were asked to theseimportant figures in government and have in fact as the emperor the question soput on every day and i think it is an extremely healthy yearparticipation broadly a citizen of this country and what they perceive to be a quiz showthat one of our nature and other important teacher democracy had never worked
quite this way before never had a nation participated so intimately in aninvestigation of its known here early witnesseshere in the caucus room could have been characters out of a crime story in the tabloids thecop on the beat the wire man or tepco owns the bag man who delivered this moneygradually the witnesses constructed the story members of the committee to reelect the president planned the burglary the object was information to embarrass thedemocrats members of the white house staff were involved in authorizing harsh money for theburglars and it was all coming out of the break in was botched at democraticheadquarters in the watergate on the night of june seventeen nineteen seventy twothe committee quizzed the policeman who's beat was the watergateover time which is the time when you really goingto see you at the time that you represented defendants was approvedfive minutes next the committee heard from one of the burglars
james mccord he demonstrated how about the telephoneand on and the irisimage of the us would beinterconnected injurymccartin was known as a good lawyer manwith the golden arm and was not martin wore my participationin the watergate operation on my part for whateverreason have had the planned operation element at the time was anarab was a mistake a very grave mistake which i regret he thought that hewas a patriot that he thought he was doing things for his countrythat he had to know better but he did have a higher perception of his goalsand that he didn't think that he was doing something for as president than something for the
white house even though somebody should've known better about doingand that when he realized that the white house and the president werenot going to back a mile and they were not going to stand behind them and admit that yeswe authorized this and this was a white house operation and thathe was going to go down in history as simply a burglar a common criminalrecord james mccord couldn't stomach that is a background of thework that you are presently stand convicted on a multi account federal indictmentcharging burge early electronic surveillance and conspiracy theorizing out the rightend of the democratic national committee headquarters of the watergate schoolan aria now awaiting sentencing on a convention a fewmonths before the start of the hearings mccourt had written a letter to judge john so ricker whopresided over his trial in federal court record reveal political pressure from the whitehouse to remain silent the judge made the letter public it was the
first crack in the cover up when the lure of silence cracks a crowdbegins to widen widen widen the wall crumbles and the pentagon investigated was the firsttrack we got the court was a political pressurefrom the white house was conveyed to me in january nineteen seventy threethe jungle real to remain silentj's at clemency by going onpresident quietly analystsreceive financial aid and later rehabilitation jobhe saw that one strategy that is the white house was to blend in on the ciahe was a great and cia and therefore hedecided that he was going to go against thatspeaking of my own feelings and
anger because of what appeared to me to be a ruthless attemptby the white house to put the blame for the watergate operation on cia where did not allowi saw a person in a letter to call you dearjack i am certain that writing this letter if helms goes into oneoperations later today speed where it does not belong and the geologicalfaults james mccord presentation had beensomber anthony us away it's a former new york city policeman well a touch ofdamon runyon human to the caucus room cheerfully told committee of his role as thehustling messenger between the burglars in the white house besides messages hedelivered hush money some of the burglars from herbert combo richard nixon'spersonal attorney and unofficial fundraiser i take it you're havingthese conversations between yourself and the chicago bears
and that we learn about changes us whohad had it changedthat whatabout the commonalities of it again all of thepeople that i call when we forget from mike and that began a column from michaelmichaels he was but the issueof what he was doing i suppose i like manyothers are camped fallen anywaywas a wonderful sense of humor and listens but i must confess thata long time ago i lost my sense of humor and the activitiesthat you describe here today
i tell my friends seems thattoday's mortgage opens tomorrow is testing andi would only answer this question tryan appropriately for a description thatyou gave to me enormous drill is right nowand presumablyand present a lesser spirit as sayingthat martin is saying i think what wesee here is not a joke every great tragedy it over a questionif indeed you let us of what's disappointing that i canassure your politics and i get dirty and thirty years
so my questionwas and by thesame token i fell asleep that day afterday of attention and drama it would not work tohave some balance in a humorous instancejim stewart mcgruder and the deputy director of the committee to re elect the presidentthis ambitious young executive cooley explained how to break in and a wholescheme of political espionage had been masterminded by the reelection committeeand he charged to john mitchell a former attorney general of the united states hadpersonally after as the watergate break in when he was running the nixon campaigng gordon liddy the council for the reelection committee was the author of theplan they didn't have a common to have a third and final meeting with mr mitchellon the living planet more about march thirty nineteen seventy so yes we had
that there had been an ally in the decision making process in the committee because of theitt errant <unk> mitchell is on vacation in key biscayne iwent down a key biscayne them history was there and we metthem and win over promptly thirty to some thirty some decision papersmay be relating to a direct mail advertising the other part of thecampaign the last topic we discussed was the a finalproposal of mr libby's which was for probably two hundred and fifty thousand dollars we discussed itagain the pros and cons i think i can honestly say no one wascritically overwhelmed with the project i think wefelt that the information could be useful and mr mitchell agreed toapprove the project and i then notified the party's of mr mitchell approvalwhat was that project was specifically
initial entry into the democratic national committeeheadquarters in washington and that and a further debateif the funds were available we would consider them an entry into thepresidential contenders headquarters and also potentiallybe a fountain blu hotel in miamiuse electronic surveillance electronic surveillance have fiveor feedback for photographing it back at one point sen baker asked him toexplain why the committee to re elect the president had authorized a burglaryor you're concerned about reaction was known for you to be a legalhow she thought it improper or an ethical that yougot the prospects for success we're very meager and you doubt the reliabilityof mr levy what color would've taken to decide against that linevery much it was the great prospects for success so
tantalizing that you felt an irresistible let me i knew you would get into this line of questions iwant it at what i think the response here i hadgone to college as an example and there had of course an ethics as anexample under william sloane coffin who i respect great great article he was going to be an amazingwell i guess like porcelain things and i think youknow again he was indicted foruswe americanspeople are greatso kind when he's exclaimed
we haveto use these activitiesi fully accept the responsibility of having made adisastrous decision or at least participating i didn't make a decision but certainly participating inthat decision really that is going to pay attention to myknowledge yes jeb magruder gave the appearance of a man who wassorry for what you've done any help the committee not so magruder superiorjon mitchell the former attorney general and remember much what he didn't remember wasnot heavily laden with regret michel in the phrase of the day was stonewallinghe had tried to protect the president from now on to watergate in the beginning and now he wouldlie awake try to protect them from the consequences of that john mitchell's allegiance torichard nixon went back several years to the time nixon join mitchell's new york law firm
the law partners also became close personal friends in nineteen sixteen and thenew president made mitchell as attorney general for three years mitchell advanced hispresence promise is a lot harder in america but michel was in on some unlawfulconniving it was in his office at the justice department that g gordon liddy proposeda scheme of wiretaps and break ins against the democrats in the nineteen seventy twocampaign has a smith chile outspoken martha raised eyebrows in thewashington establishment her late night phone calls to reporters made headlinesmitchell never go along with the inner circle around the president at the white house but heremained fiercely loyal to richard nixon he agreed to hear the reelection campaignand resigned as attorney general two weeks after the watergate break in he left thecampaign went back to new york after the senate hearings he was indicted fortrying to block a government investigation of financier robert vesco in exchange for acontribution to the nixon campaign he was acquitted on that charge mitchell
later served nineteen months in prison for his part in the watergate cover up nowdisbarred nixon's all our partner works in washington as a business consultantmy reaction was representative ofmost of my colleagues that know as a valiant soldier standingup when general the urban committee wanted to know if mitchell had indeed offer as thewatergate break here as jeb magruder city michal than that it was senatorstried to get some idea of what the president had known about watergate mitchell didn't make iteasy for them foryearswhy hadn't mitchell taken it upon himself to tell thepresident that his reelection committee was the hand them right not only be kept quiet aboutthat he hadn't told press them about earlier proposals for illegal activitiesmitchell himself calls plans the white house hard as he had not told her husband
about any of that mitchell said in order to protect himyou're welcomethe election reelection of president nixon the frame of alli want to follow your way to retain you say you didn'twant the nixon white housethank youwell i think that's one and the same just thoughtbefore the president had found out about it obviously knew thepercentage of his responsibilities in that area very vigorously andyou know you dothank you
that's exactlyright well i don't think as an adult and thatthey would have learned that whileit's quite insane and i don't expectto spendthey certainly do goodmorningthank you some of the senators wereincredulous that mitchell could even a listen to a garden ladies astonishing proposal forassorted lawbreaking in the campaign after all it was attorney general of the unitedstates there is one man that is has got to stand above all else in
this nation and the sense of enforcing our laws it's the attorney general of the united statesi know that mr mitchell through years where he talks about a memphis was areasonable fear i think chertoff about half the people united statesyou're justnicewe wereit issenatorwyden pressing mitchell widely been appalled by the lady schemes whyhadley reacted in a way that would put in the end that this kind of thing that eventually led to the plan fora burglary at the watergate twenty seven in january
nineteen seventy two or libyathey plan your boss the office of theattorney general of the united states theplan really is it includedelaborate charts electronic surveillance and breaking andentering prostitution kidnapping and marvelnow you've indicated thatin hindsight it probably should have thrown out the oddsin hindsightyou life of every american hasto a great degree of celebritytraction will wright sits in the hand of the attorney general of the united stateszaman
without any waythat is exactly what happens as i say inhindsight are recruiters or senator baker tried to understand mitchell'sconcept of the presidency is the presidency soshrouded in mystery is there such an awkwardmagnificent about the precedent is there such an awesomeresponsibility on a multitude of problems in an undertaking of thisnation but the president say in some instances must be spared thedetail very difficultof situations which are more ordinary circumstances might be considered by some at least tobe pried open decorations are criminal offenseis the presidency to be protected in that way as the splendor of the isolation so
great that the president must be protected and it's on what case itis my opinion and my concern with respect tothe president's asia at anoddball in connection with these matters or indirectly uponwhich really should've been protected from laws whyindia lives in the interest of israel and why isn't that apresidential brave decision while decisions that might be made withamanda in it are present a statewide shouldn't he be permitted to make that decisionwhat is it that they are at that authority to someone else other than the president to take thematerials that it will significantly affect not only his election prospects and changes buthis presidency because of the consequencesobviously for why shouldn't he maintainsif he were my conversation
you haven'tall those things are inferior in important to the ultimate reelectionbecause i have no doubt at the time and i have no doubt about itit didn't care that he is now undergoing the hostility and suspicion of anation in this first but with the allegations of cover up with the lingering suspicions aboutwhat he knew were greatly in that farto say that the statement that i am not prepared to accept surrender the nation'sbillshewas knowledgeablei'm talking about says they obviously because we john we go well we still a
long time and i'm delighted that i had this opportunity to probe into a greatmentality and a great name also baker found himself in a very uniquewill remain any bones about the fact that he wishes flanders richardnixon and john mitchell and some of the other general john mitchell put the phone one dayand ask our baker burrows friends organized at something notdid not perceive as if those things never happens what you do is acknowledgeand when we were together after two and a half days of testimony the committee excusejohn mitchell but not before the normally control siam day charade ended dignanobservation mr michell eloy was trying to the station and it maykind of the purpose of the barbarian invasions renowned longtimeally now both bands and throw the subject under the directquestion that you don't want to have the right answer you might say you've got cancer and what weactually find out what the specifics are what
the occasion work a fallback to make every julywhile question of the fbi is whether not do it in an information on the dnc breakin and your answeri found the john mitchell tried to evade us and to avoidanswering questions he got the year award for stonewallingsurely the most memorable witness of the summer was tandy theformer counsel to the president unlike so many of the presidents men being came here totell all we knew his testimony became the standard against which all future witnesseswould be tested until they may hearings were about burglars and fixersafter day in the hearings were about the president and the obstruction of justicejohn bain was a young man in a hurry soon after he came to washington he wasserving the most powerful men in government at the age of thirty he landed a job handed justice
department working directly with john mitchell then the attorney general they became good friendsafter two years he went to the white house as counsel to the president when he was unable to getclose to richard nixon white house inner circle men like bob haldeman and johnehrlichman blocked his access then came the watergate break in sending wascoordinating the cover up that made it important to the president and he was in and out of theoffice when the cover up began to fall apart been suspected his superiors were setting him up asa scapegoat he went to the prosecutors were the story soon afterward lane wasfired it happened the same day that halderman ehrlichman and ray jim klein dangerous thantwo months later jan they emerged as the star of the senate hearings he alsowas the key government witness in the trial of the major watergate defendants hiscooperation got him a relatively light prison term of for months for obstruction of justice he nowlives in california with his wife marie disbarred he works as a freelance
writer and radio producer hasmore devastating withdisabilities from thebeginning it was obvious that john dean could be an important witness as counsel to the presidenthe knew the internal workings of the white house and he was willing to talk but he wantedimmunity and he didn't want to tell what he knew to the steppe in committee in advance as otherwitnesses were arrested there it was worried that thethat our republican members of the committee as well the republicans thereare barber committee would reportback into the white house is cooperation and therefore i think he had toappear before a staff or a committee there be no cooperation ifigured out a way to work with john dean and avoid that danger isuggested to him that we have what i call non meetings that i would
go outside the senate office building made within that any plays he suggested hesuggested his home sam days we've been going to john dean's house late at night to meet withdean his lawyer charles staff are there the real story of watergate began to comeout here clearly doing was indispensable and day she had to convince the committee andstep to bring into the witness table on his own terms rosaria still about thequestion of were doing was going to have tobut the rules that we had a woman had become irresistible and howlost he had become irresistible dane's prepared statement two hundred andforty five pages long laid out what he knew about others' involvement in the watergateaffair and his own role as the coordinator of the cover up in a sometimesshaky monotone he told a tale that could devastate the nixon administrationit's a very difficult thing for me about other people
are more easy for me to explain my own involvement in this matter thefact that i was involved in destruction of justice the fact that i insistedanother in her testimony to the fact that imade personal use of funds that were in my custody areeager to talk about these things myself and talk about one other thing thatsome of these people always referring to our friends the mom and i greatly admire andrespect we repost the united states like to say thisit is my familywhile the president wasn't all that he did not realizeor appreciate it anytime implications of his involvementmight think that when the facts come out of the president's argument whenbeing talked about what the president knew about watergate he was drawing on direct knowledgehe recalled a conversation in the oval office a few months after the break in when he
realized the president was aware of the cover up the president told me i'd done a goodjob and he appreciated that van mchone waspleased that the case and start living i was on i could not takeit but others have done much more difficult things and i had done that the president'smessage the president's status of a situation like that areunable to do was to contain the case consistently been out of the white housebefore that momentthat's rightdean toll of another meeting with the president a fewmonths later when the cover up was increasingly difficult to manage the convictedwatergate burglars were demanding money there i told the president about the fact there wasno money to pay these individuals to meet their demands he asked me how much it would costi told him it only make an estimate that it might be as high as a million dollars or
more he told me that that was no problem he also looked over parliamenta repeat of the same statement dean said he was exasperated by the president'sunwillingness to see how serious this situation was was myparticular concern with about the provenance not seem to understand the implications of what was going onfor example when i told him that i thought was an obstruction ofjustice situation he'd argued with me to the contrary i can explain it to himalso with a matter of money the man to come up previously he had very nonchalantlytold me that that was no problem i did not know he realized that he was thebeginning i haven't i haven't promisedto hunt what i had hoped to doin this conversation was to have the president tell me we had to end the matternow accordingly i gave considerable thought to how i would present thissituation to the president and try to make as dramatic a presentation as i could tell him how
serious i thought the situation was that the cover up continue i began bytelling the president that there was a cancer growing on the presidency and if the cancerwas not removed the president himself would be killed but i also told him that it wasimportant that this cancer be removed immediately because it was growing more deadlyevery day being felt he had warned the president he was worried about hisown culpability he was afraid he was being made a scapegoat for gay sojohn bain went to the prosecutors i told the president that i'd gone to theprosecutors and i did not believe that this was an activist wanted a brother in the end would be an act of loyaltyi told him i thought his mother had an eye inform the presidentabout all the prosecutors' of my own involvement in the involvement of others becausemr morsi began asking me a number of leading questionswhich was somewhat unlike his normal conversational relationship that have a poem
which made me think of the conversation was being taped and a record was being made toprotect yourself oh i became aware of this because of the nature of the conversationi decided i did not know it for a fact that i have to believe that the person would nottake such a conversation toward the end of the conversation thepresident recalled the fact that one point we had discussed the difficulty ofraising money and he said the one million dollars with nothing to raise to pay to maintainsilence with defendants he said that he and he had of course only beenjoking when he made that comment as the conversation went on and it'simpossible really recall anything other than the high point of it i became more convinced the president wasseeking to elicit testimony from me and put in perspective buthis perspective on the record and get me to agree to it the most interesting thing that happenedor in a conversation with her near the end he got up out of his chair went behind the
chair the corner of the executive office building off office and inanenearly audible tones said to me he wasprobably going to discuss tons clemency recalls anothercolor respond to these disclosures that amaze the comedian the country butmany have trouble believing what they've heard when john dean firstappeared on the same farm i did not believethe most substantial parties just like bears isnobody nobody lives completely andsome people tell the truth completely the girlsall four students are given credit for that he's very smart obviously butthe property was twisting thanks to his sidearm if anyone of us atthe outset believe it was two fantasticfor four days the committee questioned john bain taking him back to a crucial
passages in detail senator baker asked the question are we heard many timesduring that summer with the central question at this point is simply putwhat did the president know andwhen did you know there was an effort by some other republicans to discredit thebases down information about genes own finances he admitted he'd takenmoney from the white house say for personal use part of it to pay for his honeymoonbeing maintained he planned to return the money we're calling her testimonyto show that you had forgotten to get some money outof an account in new york and not one of the four thousand eight hundred and fiftydollars is that righti needed money did youwhy didn't you well at
one point i went in that and what i had in libyaand in november when i was drivingintomy house and i have no idea how the question was if you didn't use themoney for that we're going to use the money for his pocketof things that you ask any weakness on cross examination to question hercredibility i don't believe that he did anything more to show that and show that john deanwas an ambitious opportunists type young man who might have engagedin some particulars of that kind at one point been disclosed that the white house kept lists of itsenemies he admitted he participated in this effort to harass an assortment of peoplesaying isn't friendly to the administration mr dean i would likeabout where to a memo dated august sixteenth nineteenseventy one an idea of justifiable this was a
haldeman ehrlichman and others of the white house is datedaugust sixteen nineteen seventy one in this classifiedconfidential subject dealing with our political enemiesalike republicans this memorandum addresses the matterof how we can maximize the fact of our incumbency in dealing with prisons known to beactive and their opposition to our administration's stated a bit morebluntly how we can use available federal machinery to screw our political enemiesand your testimony have submitted severalexhibits with lists of names political members ofcongress members of the media the members of theentertainment field cetera et cetera i'mtaking this demo together with the us i might and also senator before we go forward
i don't believe that list is completely love it so happens to be apart and i received in had no access to warm upwhile or shut down that they may well be additional names an additionalinformation available on them adrian utley onelist would've been enough it turned out that senator weicker himself in a white housetarget an emotional speech he called for a higher standard of morality in theexecutive branch they're going to be no more threats nointimidation no innuendo know walking through the press togo ahead and destroy the credibility give individuals the executive branch ofgovernment wants to meet the standards of the american peopleseparate in their minds and the time has come to stop reactingand stop playing this type of again i say before you and i said when american people's
commitment but i'm here as a republicanand quite frankly i think that i express the feelings of the forty twoother republican senators andrepublicans in the state of connecticutrepublicanunease giovannilet me make itclear god i have bipartisan moment republicans do not coverall republicans do not go ahead andthreaten republicans do not go ahead and commit illegal actsand god knows republicans though youtheir fellow americans as enemies to be harassed or rather i canassure you that this republican those lesser right
and as human beingsat baines testimony produced a number ofshocks the enemies list was one of them but it was dean's story in its entiretythe implications of the whole pattern of operations in the white house thatultimately was so devastating i think john dean's testimony turn thehearings around complaint i think we we were leading up toam i think there is on that train and meaning forindia what watergate was all about it's as i've indicated totransform the meaning of watergate from a political burglary toa message to the public that something dangerous to happen the united statesjohn dean's testimony change the course of the hearings and of history but atthe time when it was also hard for some people to believe dean was david challenging
goliath nobody had yet stepped forward to back him up beingstallone and he knew it i quite aware of the fact that insome circumstances can be my word against one man's word to memy word against two men me my word against three men and probably in somecases in my word against four men but i am prepared to stand onmy word and the truth in the knowledge of the facts i have andi know the truth is my ally in this and i think ultimatelythe truth is going to come out but how would the truthcome out who would possibly confirmed been start surely not thepresident not his closest aides who could be expected to test that had been was lyinghow would we ever know after brie station great edges have aheinz will discover the white house tapessummer of judgment the watergate hearings is made possible in part by a grant from the
This record is featured in ““Gavel-to-Gavel”: The Watergate Scandal and Public Television.”
Summer of Judgment
Part 1 of 2
Producing Organization
Contributing Organization
Library of Congress (Washington, District of Columbia)
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Focuses on the summer, 1973 hearings of the Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities. Includes excerpts from key testimony by John Dean, John Mitchell, John Erlichman, H.R. Haldeman and others.
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United States. Congress. Senate. Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities; Watergate Affair, 1972-1974
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Moving Image
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Associate Producer: Gamble, Joanna
Associate Producer: Ducat, Sue
Director: Sirianne, Mary Frances
Executive Producer: Winslow, Lindo
Host: McDowell, Charles
Producer: Green, Ricki
Producing Organization: WETA
Production Unit: Clevinger, Jill
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Library of Congress
Identifier: 1860529-1-1 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: 2 inch videotape
Generation: Copy: Access
Color: Color

Identifier: cpb-aacip-512-mc8rb6ww1z__1860529-2-1.mp4.mp4 (mediainfo)
Format: video/mp4
Generation: Proxy
The Walter J. Brown Media Archives & Peabody Awards Collection at the University of Georgia
Identifier: 83065dct-1-arch (Peabody Object Identifier)
Format: U-matic
Duration: 2:00:00
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Chicago: “Summer of Judgment; Part 1 of 2,” 1983-00-00, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 20, 2019,
MLA: “Summer of Judgment; Part 1 of 2.” 1983-00-00. Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 20, 2019. <>.
APA: Summer of Judgment; Part 1 of 2. Boston, MA: Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from