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whoa whoawhoa while nasa was a bustlingcommunity nestled in one northern outpost for the northern armyit becomes a really good it's an area as the northern arms ordefeated without they've sent items some perishable goods they controlnational remember tennessee was the first state to return to the union in aperiod of the civil war and in essence tennessee becomes a testing ground our laboratoryfor reconstruction are one of the features of this novel was a large and growing africanamerican community some slave some for many free blacks thoseblacks who haven't escaped slavery true freedom to purchase they have resided inactual embodiment of the civil war they reside there for two or three generationsthey now mingle with the growing population of contrabandcontraband wobbles african americans captured during the civil war who weretransported back the northern arms to a safe area for the would be allowed to be re enslaved and
used within the confederate cause nash who had a series of several largecontraband camps especially northern partners say got this mixture ofslave and free you've got those northern armies that areoccupied nashville you've got a large population of vegetarians who really weren'tserious southern sympathizes with syria's confederates you've got a business communityand all this mixture and bring to go barbara rich diverse communityare not so much interested in recapturing the past but saying tank for newcommunitylike in the contraband campus primarily life for women childrenand older men they were kept there it would be unfair analogy tocompare them to the concentration camp but there is what people did not travel
they were supplied with the wind and they weren't free to travel young african americanmales who were strong enough to fight were pressed into service and become a partof the league's efforts of the union army so he's cut baguette a prominent womenchildren and older people there was a plaid bow the northern armythey were told we shall reflect on bearable sides but theywere pleasant eric one of the great misconceptions that was a great period of jubilee of freedomfor african americans and they were falling so were african americans and national whohad been slaves were still kept this contraband slights many african americans have beenused to build fortnightly union fortifications edge so that waseveryone was at work there was an idleness that wasn't peddling that wasn't sittingaround now one of the great designers among the african americans slave and freewhat's your education
meyersayswhatwould the contraband campafrican american slave probably had more dire conditions in slaveryit was a huge hit and it was a pitched outsider it may have beenteens i that was certainly epidemics call ran rampant contraband campsthere was food provided but it wasn't the best quality from it was a wholelife contraband camps were not happy places and workplaces of sorrowthere are places where families were displaced people have been brought in on rail trains and dumpedat the real hit from the real hit they listened to the cockpitthere's been
a pieceeducation would provide for peoplewho'd been denied the ability to read and write and communicate a great chanceafrican americans and slave knew about education they often seen and heard storiesof free blacks were educated base all preachers who often could readand read the bible and bible reading was a great desire among people who werefairly oh what a hopeless existence because education aboutreading over the possibility of salvation and heaven and even among the african americanthere's that old new england idea that all appear to idea that one can read the scriptures one canhope for eternal salvation education also meant a chance to communicateto write to say and ideas education that the au to
pass on something to the young and during that period especially lebanese of flavoreducation was not available to african americans nominating fiftiestennessee will pass a law against public education in america and severalsouthern states had sunni a lot so one of the great desire as in a period of freedomwas devoted to be educated and to educate your childrenthat's rightari union forces come into national occupynational there's an interesting activity among the free blacks those were not enslaved butthose have been banned three now has the opportunity again for education theybegin to all for parochial education or proprietary education that's where youpay an owner famous macedonians james carroll napier hisfather operated a preschool you come in you pay your nipple you'd
get your education the schools were primarily for free blacks andonce the sleeves a rat and contraband can't you find free blacksrushing out to set up the schools within contraband can't these all the treesof a group that would've been identified if you can imagine as the middleclass those of the blacks who could afford his education those great desire for itthe american spirit during peak of reconstruction the americanspirit during the period of reconstruction was how religious groups might helpthese people who were suddenly free what do the slave maid what do the family andslavery and among northern religious groups missionary activities
but in this instance missionary activities are directly tied to education and somany of the aims of the commissioners coming in and the late civil war period and theearly post war period to provide radiation they become the teachers for theformerly enslaved they also become the teachers for many of the free blacksbecause these white missionaries represent a higher level of education andadam experienced that free but so among the southern african american populationeducation as one of the driving forces in the post civil war yearsyes the missionaries who comes out most realize howthey're coming at a great risk because the south and fully accepted to summonwhite population and fully accepted the idea of freedom for the full slatefreedom is one thing education to something else at a time when you didn't
have a public education vast public education for southern whites you wouldhave these missionaries you might consider church work but the church where a religious life tobe about is what about basic an extended education for african americanswhywhywhy there is a there's a resentment education it lookedon as the great equalizer and you must understand that it appeared at the civil warthe southern whites especially porcelain wives are looking for something thatseparates them from slate from the metro it was obvious that any free manwas a pure you to a slight now black and white herbal friedit's also obvious that many educated that it's a period any idea toignore that these missionaries now this possibility of education
to be african american who was seen as the perpetual underclassit's going to come to equalize it's gonna provide equalization that threatened the statusquo and the south in fact that threatened bean casserolemuch of this resistance played up the burnings and many of thebuildings of the sites were burned hard this will take the form of a restaurant of themissionaries so those white missionaries that come into these african american unit is the whitemissionaries are common in nashville tennessee are welcomed with open arms by thewhite groups know the white people there they're seen as coming in itinterfering or interfering with the status quo they're challenging theposition of who provides for the negro and at this point andappeared out of the war south that i'm interested in saying it might provide for the negro for theenslaved and the world becomes a symbol of the cornerstone last
weekask a questionbecause they're all the opportunities and the immediate opportunity with an opportunity to beeducated and everyone to remember that all takes to educate someone is to beeducated herself african americans were also aware that in el attar weregreat mysteries contain in that book called hold of babel but someone else had alwaysinterpreted for you if you can read you can read about why you're so if you can readabout yourself you can charge a path to salvation you can providefuture if not in this world in the next world far superior to anything you neverknow
yes in salvation it'sin celebration the sleeves had always been taught are those of theworld there was another place that there was this great get in that morning when everyone will be freebut they were also talk that there would only be provided the bones who lived a goodand righteous life in slavery they were told by the white ministeror the black minister sound of a master what constituted a goodand right light now they could read the bible and find that out for themselvesadditionally covers opportunity of a group and write a line for their children when theywant to raise in a religious family and community the otherbenefit of being able to read and write was that you could communicate with someone who was awiccan you could leave him message you could write downrecipes you could pass on directions and all of this was nebulousif you could read and write but now enabled the slave but observe this
along the white and asked where's there was great respect in the southfor those children of the masters who were highly educated the house layinganyone appeals they would've learned this now you could raise your social statusgain salvation all this one vehicle educationwhat i'm out among the missionary activities of groups that come and tennessee immediatelyafter the civil war is the west and friedman great society and the americanmissionary association also another group very active insupporting the former slaves will be the fourth chaplains of the union armythese groups come together and they look at where they can benefit a formerflight nationals an excellent location because there are so manyenslaved as so many in the contraband camp for such a large community national as our
sonics on location because the union army controls unoccupied nationalunion general in charge of national is clinton boat and this cotton fisk inhis early life had been a man of great religious and moral conviction he had workedas a mission there are another important figure in the formation of reallyfierce his arrest us now who had been a union missionary they've all workedwith the formerly enslaved but actually an experiment it's agreat chance at celebration an experiment can these people be educatedso the american missionary association in the west in friedman's a sidewill apply to the congress under the terms of the freedman say aboutfriedman's bureau which provided funding for opportunities for educationand medical need amongus
or frisked and crab up and many madam case spends the first principlethey contribute personal lives they also contribute much of theirsalary in working for these missionaries association that's the initial the seedmoney from that be applied to the congress and a new two friedman'sact funds are provided for fiscal and national orhoward university in washington early schoolseducating the point of this free coloreds coup as it was arigid doesn't have opened its doors january the nih at sixty sixyearsas we're traveled throughout the contraband camps and we're traveled routenational inward travel around the country that i was as just opportunity you saw
groups coming two and three and four will there gotyoung chap baby coming walking on foot carrying thesec or poke as it was called making a while would pay a trioto the site of the former union hard to beatunion army hospital side which is the side of the union station a nationalunion station had been constructed by union forces as they were movingso they needed to train station a cholera epidemic overtooknational saw husband had a development this about the barracks from thehospital to become the site the first building barracks side of this couppeople showed up and the missionaries were there and at first they were taughtbasic idea of like what a teddyyes all the flythis is
great theoriginal site would be the union armythe original site for fisk free corkscrew with a unionarmy hospital barracks constructed by the union army and the color epidemicjoe fiscal allow these buildings to become the site of the screw and themissionary activity people want people wore free and fortwo families three families were bringing children and bring themselvesto the site be educated the name implies a lot it was a freeschool so in this case there was no intuition charge your desire was to beeducated when the missionaries the white missionaries first saw these people and to teachthem basic deportment come in sit down the quietthey were surprisingly they were surprised by the fact that this wasn'tdifficult because these people deserve education they would do just about whatever they were
told to prove to receive this wonderful get education and there'srumor alphabet base account the basicsteals heart but again the uniqueness was it was an audience that didn't have tobe anyway admonished of pushed they were anxious to school openedanywhere night at sixty six and it's estimated that the end of it where there were more thanthree hundred persons there by the end of many of the first year there were almost fivehundred people at the site the site is bustling the site exploding thesite small site is rather than that the day that a hospitalthat was built to accommodate a hundred and fifty or two hundred and fifty six patientshis son of the home for five hundred anxious his hoursfor slaves and so relax while also caught thedesign education seems to be universal among this african american population
betterin fact for the first five toseven years people will range of ages become mothers and grandmothersdidn't sin children they brought them and once they were there they when the question toflee we have two and three generations as old as fifty five sixtyand children as young as seven or a learned to read and right learningto memorize babel passages learning from rote memory of songs andriddles and rats what is mental exercise they are testing their ownintelligence how much can i learn how much can our store and i was surprisedbecause the challengers seemed limitless they could learn and prosperand they do this well into the evening there was simply no a preschool day
the educational process and your coach who was all day longthey also learned a certain degree of humanity from the whitemissionaries that they may not have expected that had not been there what they arelearning they're what later generations to call multiple to liveas bonniewhatare frightened sixty sixty eight and seventy one you have the basics ofeducation because that's what's desire that's what's needed that includes providingin tennessee in nashville in a conservative to get the first public schoollaw mandating public education art question is whowould be the teacher's many of these early this beautifully become most teachersbut it also will necessitate or allow a court given shifted risk
the public schools are going to teach the basic what is the reading the wide thesite during his recall mathematics now the direction of this schoolthere comes a move to become fisk university a university can prepareteachers a university could prepare leaders and the curriculum that selected is thevery classic or basic ritual really similar to the north northeast and skinand north eastern school of art and a curriculum atselected is verisimilitude the northeastern universities of the periodreligion mathematics foreignlanguage greet the local state it's a classical education will be thedirection for fisk universitythis is
his bookoh he mumbled the title was changed frompreschool to university there's another dilemma because the friedman'sbureau which is providing the funds and university ceases to hack an act ofcongress to issue never pay the cost of education people thebuildings have become dilapidated so while the name takes on university thefinancial condition is severe and great initial it's hoped that many of theformer students not employees teachers can give back enough and they do makesacrifices but the conditions become from beck to worse asfisk free skin becomes fisk universitythe conditions are so bad that many months the faculty in paythere's no way to pay the faculty are students endeavoring to come to collegeor come to this place now have very were very little and
very few resources financial resources are and i don'tlook at the garrison up at one point to cut cost is decided the desert would no longer beserviced part of the evening meal this that is art a sharp cost cutting measure reallyshows as financially how bad things were local churchesare asked to support and they do but the sad story is thegovernment of age and seventy one many are questioning robert fisk will continuetodo thatone of the activities that went on from this can fisk universitywe're in moments of leisure time students would say they would share the oldsongs they would tell stories are this beautifulsensitive moment the faculty would stop and listen and one person who stops and listens
man named george l y you're dwight has the task of the treasure butgeorgia white believes that there's a real interest in hearing collegestudents perform it should be remembered that thisis also of all of the minstrel show so the idea of a samegroup is not unusual people in places like new york and chicago andboston are going to see singing oops white believes that might also bea natural audience or natural constituency to hear college students were africanamerican for songsthe theanalysis of the minstrel is one that would be challenging his challenge but hedid not have these devices minstrels he thought of them as college students and in allhonesty a black college student in african american college student was
considerably uniqueness remember there have been no such unity as students from acollege id and about african americans traveling in groups and they have been one oftwo african americans who attended some schools in the north but a college ofafrican americans was a unique and youstill saysthere are also what thepresent so thatthey won't the idea studentsgoing out to raise funds is not immediately embraced by the school's board oftrustees are even some of the faculty members they wonder what they willencounter i wonder how the war will precede it becomes a point of contentconsiderable discussion among the school's board and its trustees
eventually white and krabill will take the last fallalong some donated funds to send these young people out or twoit comes at the darkest moment have an excuse to read because of that tab the secondone dollar up in the treasure book of whether theyes yes yes the firsttriple digit lead she'll be in tennessee to town called outwhite residents come out and they are amazed not simply at the harmonythat didn't perform but looking at these young african americansand poor and also the fact that some african american young people seethemselves in the jubilee singers they see something they've never knewbefore a proud african american college student as the sailors even toembark upon three world two wars may not only carry the negro
This record is featured in “Jubilee Singers Interviews.”
Series
American Experience
Episode
Jubilee Singers: Sacrifice and Glory
Raw Footage
Interview with Reavis Mitchell, Historian
Contributing Organization
WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)
AAPB ID
cpb-aacip/15-vx05x26m5f
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Description
Reavis Mitchell Interview about a group of young ex- slaves in Nashville, Tennessee, who set out on a mission to save their bankrupt school by giving concerts. Traveling first through cities in the North, then on to venues across Europe, the Jubilee Singers introduced audiences to the power of spirituals, the religious anthems of slavery. Driven to physical collapse and even death, the singers proved more successful - and more inspirational - than anyone could have imagined.
Topics
Music
History
Race and Ethnicity
Subjects
American history, African Americans, civil rights, racism, lynching, Mississippi
Rights
(c) 2000-2017 WGBH Educational Foundation
Media type
Moving Image
Duration
0:28:01
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Credits
Release Agent: WGBH Educational Foundation
AAPB Contributor Holdings
WGBH
Identifier: barcode3638_Mitchell_01_SALES_ASP_h264 Amex 864x486.mp4 (unknown)
Duration: 0:28:01
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Citations
Chicago: “American Experience; Jubilee Singers: Sacrifice and Glory; Interview with Reavis Mitchell, Historian,” WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 20, 2019, http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-vx05x26m5f.
MLA: “American Experience; Jubilee Singers: Sacrifice and Glory; Interview with Reavis Mitchell, Historian.” WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 20, 2019. <http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-vx05x26m5f>.
APA: American Experience; Jubilee Singers: Sacrifice and Glory; Interview with Reavis Mitchell, Historian. Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-vx05x26m5f