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ms ursula bigger and theoriginal nineteenseventy eight by seventeenfifty slavery is integrity to the south south carolinahas majority of african americans virginia has a huge amount of africanamericans the south is a slave regionand the entire economy is dependent on slave laborduring the coldwar and then withenslavement in colonialamerica represents for whites a status symbolto have slaves is part of your wealth andto be involved and enslavement meansthat you are very important to the economy they may even stop
city and soyou howslavery shaped southern identity is whether you're aslave owner demands by seventeen fiftyslavery is untangle part of the colonial economyin the north and especially in the south slavesare the most important form of wealth the next important form of wealth island in the two go together because the slaves worked the land the moreland you have more slaves you have the more profit you can accrueso slavery is part of that system and to be a slave owner is tobe a member of the elite to be a non slave holder is tobait essentially a small farmer or poor white
so slavery determines your status incolonial american who isin the innovation of students didn'twant to remain in the towncentral to the operationbecause to work in the south was to be blackafricans controlled the laborand that included women as well this man when memes form ofautonomy in south carolina african american women was through themarket system because they did the buying for the familybecause they sold in the market they had essentially
sort of a community that had some economicaspects to it it gave them a sense ofbeing able to have some control over themselves and asfar as the white community was concerned that meant that this was something that they didn't have to deal withthis kind of domestic aspects oflife so it represented the whole market scene which where food was boughtand sold represented for africans a form of autonomy and forwhites it was an area that they didn't want anything to do with a later onweiss began to realize that this market situation controlled by womenbecomes a means of communication are not working for african americanssometimes for resistance purposes so gradually theybegan to tighten the screws on the privileges but they have
allowed the african women to have in the marketplaceit isthe centerpiece of the playand step back crisis emergesand the charleston names are involved in protestand beginning his pamphlet warand this rhetoric about liberty and them being treated asslaves by great britain quite naturally the real slaves are going to pick upon this and as a reaction to that african americans began toprotest themselves and begin to assess as theyhave always done a situation that might be an opportunity for
liberty so they pick up on this rhetoric above norepresentation and being taxed of one liberty and having their liberty takenaway and of course if anyone has their liberty taken away getsthem so that african americans are very much aware of what's going on andbegin to protest as well as other kinds of resistancethey look for avenues of resistance and when this crisis begins and seventeensixty five african americans are not onlyprotesting but they're also involved in other kinds of resistance looking foropenings in the system the er things that happened afterthat from seven six seven his sixty five until the actuallexington and concord confrontation represent sort of a marchfor african americans toward further assertion of their own sense
of liberty and it's oftentimes preceded bywhat they see the whites still that indeed if whites canprotest for their liberty the mate as people who are the true in slade have a right toprotest for the years houses a year chances to theholiday season actually a black majority a white minorityin a situation like charleston where there are so many africanamericans compared to the white population so many african americanswho are central to the economy it's very dangerous situationand the colonists realized that and they're constantly writing each othertalking about it in slate people aresometimes executed for what they consider to be tests of theirposition as bond's people there situation of a couple who hearabout the mansfield somerset this isn't
an written and seventy seventy two and they immediately fleet because it and tried to britainbecause they have heard that africans and britain are free sothe calmness react to this bias they historically havereacted and that is the grid pressed the africans and as they've oppressedthe africans and africans look for other opportunities so carolina itselfand toss in particular because it's an urban center with a huge black populationwho do all of the labor is in a way kind of in astate of internal siege becauseof thatquestion mark warnermeans it's only spanish how do
americans don't sit idly by while the whites aremurdering and doing all kinds of things to curtail thefreedom sometimes they simply pay no attention to these laws andcontinue to ignore curfews they robthey become highwaymen some of them run away run to theindians they know that the nation thecolonies are in turmoil and that thesituation and slave my aunt is somewhat insecure are worriednot the whites would not feel so incumbent to create these situations ofrepression so their reaction the african american reaction isto resist and they resist by fleeing they resist byignoring curfews they become very belligerent sometimes to whites in thestreets so they know that something is afoot and that there may
be an opportunity for them and of course the british evenbefore the moore's proclamation even in the early seventeenth seventies arewriting to each other in writing to england same that ifa columnist continue then we know that we can certainly get theirslaves to rise up against them so african americans aresold and triple to the economy that they knoweverything they see everything and they hear everything and they react to thatfbfb
stomachs crawling around one hundredwhat isthe state of slave owners playsis alwaysthere's a pieceit is about liberty are everywhere there in the streets they're certainly in the homethe conversations are not privatemasters and mistresses talk about freedom as they've been served bytheir slaves women are coming in with dishes listening to this conversationthey know that there's a lot of controversy overvarious issues that come up among the columnists so this itselfcreates a tension within a domestic context so that you
have been since they were men who are working in the home andbecome impotent when they confront them is just as it was something minorprobably before the agitation for revolutionhad occurred when there was a conflict the women would back downbut with this talk of liberty in the air that was being espousedby blacks as well as whites it created a certain so when there's a certainassertiveness of played itself out in the home and i played itself outwith women talking back to their mistresses played itself out that poisoningswith flight with indignities that tedthey previously would have ignored mushroom me so people arelooking for ways to assert themselves and when they were doing this in thehome
the scream at the precipicetoimagine you know and the current law oreasier for everything in there's this whole idea of a trust bostonhis song unionsailors kind of getting a sense of and how they were falseand try to maintain a sense of betrayal now when the us setthemselves as human beings or whatever or it's even aslave what is the speed and in the american culture and helpthem to the interesting thing about thejeremiah situation was that he was considered a trusted black
and whites could understand whyhe had betrayed them and that speaks tothe why at capacity for self deception to feel thatafricans who they had enslaved over generations would beloyal to them before they would be loyal to their own freedom and yet whites didbelieve that and unfortunately there were some blacks who even in this particularage made that belief a reality but not the majoritynevertheless whites believe that blacks would remain loyal and they especiallybelieved this about the ones who may consider privileged who once lived in the housethe ones who they gave certain privileges to me hewas killed one from a heart out and that allowed to keep acertain amount of their earnings so the attitude of whites was that since they
had given them these miniscule privileges than that had foundthem but this was like super concerned these peels is only meant thatthere were more problems out there that they were entitled to we needpeople oftentimes need tofeel justified in the treatment of othersand with slave holders i think they wanted tofeel that the system was ok the system was workingand this would make them feel less fearful if they cantrust their slaves than there was nothing to fear and slavery itself wasok so i think it speaks to this need to feelthat all pressure and is something that african americanshad learned to live with and indeed that as far as african
americans were concerned this was not oppression this was simply the natural state of thingsso for whites the idea was thatit was ok and they you could feel good about this and i think it had had a well was aprocess of wanting to not fear their own slavesit'sbecause it'sbeingnow did she tell youdavidthanks boston king in his wife violet king were southcarolina african americans who lived in the seaisland region of south carolina probably the worst kind of
bondage in terms of labor tom king wasoften hired out and in his memoirs talks about how brutally he was treatedeven though it was very hardworking highly trained as a carpenter andprobably represents the spontaneous way in which a lot ofafricans let the south to seek the britishhearing by word of mouth sometimes that the british were willing to takeafrican americans if they were willing to fight with him or even if they wanted justto get away from bondage and king himself in order to avoidpunishment after praying to god is very religious man after praying to god wasable to get by the guards who oftentimes don't watch because theyknew that it's a people were trying to get to the british so he wasable to get by the guards and to get tothe british lines and downed he served in the british
with the british forces as a result of that as a very fascinating history becausehe served with the british he's captured by the americans he escapes fromthe americans and goes back to the british and eventually sales with the traditionalfiscal ship it ishow aboutitrepresents that racial crossoverbetween indians and blacks africanamericans and africans were oftentimes used against the indians but theywere also often times people who want to fly to the indians away fromthe hat white so it was a complex situationand there was some intermarriage and their violent
came was part indian and people in the regionsee it ends i wish she was helped the britishand the indians helped british she had relatives among the indians who wouldbring food and to the british and tam keep them suppliedso there was almost like a three way alliancebetween blacks who were trying to serve the british and trying toingratiate themselves to the british and hope that when the war was over they would be able to leave with abritish indians who was sort of caught in the middle and try todecide who was going to win and that quest the britishwho essentially are going to try and use both blacks and indianscurtisthe situation in the south was
essentially upheaval the whites were fleeing their plantations as a britishbegan to move into the self sometimes trying to take their ownpeople with the other times just leaving them when they left than many ofthe african americans took over the plantation homes looted themtook all kinds of clothing much of a mismatched andi'm whatever they could take with them food sometimes livestock sometimes ahorse if they could get it a lot of fleet to the british lineso there was a tremendous amount of elation it was also aquestion of where were they going and it raises that question of coursethat keeps coming up what is freedom the masters forgotten manycases and they were free to at least leave the plantation on theway of course they were just as likely to be dealt with a group of patriot guerrillasas the british so there was a lot of danger worse many women had
children with them there was a the fear that tap the children cannot stand the journeythere were old people so you know you're looking at a freedom struggleand large groups of people in the countryside going from place to placesometimes not knowing where but hoping that they were headed toward the british so yes there'selation and no longer having a master but then there's some apprehension because theydon't know what lies ahead and they really don't know what to expect from the british they've heard stories inmany cases that the british will accept them if they dothis people reallydidn't know what to expect from the british phrase well they did not they were going to find the britishand some of the african americans began to leave the south andseventy and seventy five given the fact that those who gotcertificates of freedom didn't leave until seventeen eighty three has had a longperiod of time in which they went to all kinds of trials and
the british camp followers werewhen an elderly men and childrenand everyone had some kind of occupation and thenof course were used for fighting for fourteen for scouting the women werecooks were seamstresses that launches says they carriedwater to the men in battle and sometimes loaded musket so there wassomething for them to do they also formedrelationships with british soldiers black soldiers for relationships with some of thosewomen the loyalist women who were following the young british because some arewhite indentured servants were also in these camps can't life was part ofearly modern warfare and just like the africans werefiled when the british there were women and children fall when the americanssell a modern conception of war does not begin to
understand what was happening in this war with this largetrain of africans all different descriptions inall kinds of transportation following the british butthere'saweird city is the britishheadquarters and eventually that is where all of the africansleave the plantations not only in the south but people who leave theirhomes in the north we want to get too that's where freedom actually lies andthe road is very dubious and some people don't make itbut a lot of people do and new york gay is thecenter of activity for african americans who have sought andfound freedom during the war when a tsunami
warningohyeah so your state has been auseful place for the british and the africans who are there have been useful to the britishthe question is what happens after the war's overan article ten of the peace treaty and seventeen eighty threehopes to get back on a seven pagearticle seven of the peace treaty treaty of paris that ended theamerican revolution stipulated that all property was to be returned ofcourse people fattened descent who were in bondage are consideredproperty the general a judge in new york city general birchdid not want to return the africans who had helped the
british effort and were in new york city to the american owners in spite of what the peacetreaty said so he issued certificates of freedomto over three thousand african americans men womenand children and this freed them and italso permitted them to leave with the british when they eventually leftto america for the last time this created a tremendous amount of angeron the part of the americans washington protested loudly butburke stood by those certificates even though many owners camefrom the south to try and retrieve the former bonds people in boston kingtalks about the terror and the fear that the africans had in new york ofbeing discovered by their owners and there were situations where africans hadactually been taken by their owners and we're in the process of being taken away from new yorkand ah general birch stopped the process
and sent the a seven hours away without their slaveseventually these african americans anyway were able to leave go tonova scotia and became part of that black atlantic worldnot only in nova scotia summit in london summit to germany some eventually went backto africa sierra leone so for that groupfreedom became a reality but many thousands of african americanswho aided the british lost their freedomanyway done more the architect of the e a proclamationthat began this whole process of african americans serving with the britishthe seed many african americans and many of themended up in slavery in the caribbean others when they attempted to leavewith the british in places like charleston and savannah were prevented andtheir incredible letters written by southerners of
africans after the seizure trials and swami out and bolts and thebritish hacking away at their arms with cutlasses to keep him from falling and so is avery tragic situation and of the many thousands of africans who left theplantations not many of them actually got that freedomand we wantto bewhen i was given these days or wasthatthe target was as far as we know anabsolute guarantee that you're going to get on a british ship even though afterwashington's protest general birch set up inquiry commission needsto investigate the claims of law the patriots
about their slaves but as far as we know no one who had one of thosecertificates was kept back so that part of the britishpromise was kept there otheraspects of that struggle we are we lost so we know that theydid keep that much of the promise how you got her certificatehad to do with where you were some people in south carolina incharleston that certificates some people in savannah thatcertificate and wants bars issued a certificate then thatgave the holder the right to get on a boat and go to new york cityto eventually leave with the britishthere
are significant andcivilians in qana lebanon the politics and economics thathave a lot of soldiers are swollen tothe two movies onto your parentsaresome aspects of the american revolutionespecially when looking at it from the perspective of white societymake you realize that was no revolution at all forafrican americans it was a freedom struggle for whiteamericans it was in some ways a struggle between a parentand a child that eventually we're going to be reconciledand i guess one significant example of that is the fact that at thetreaty of paris and reliance planter merchant
slave trader from charleston and robert oswald hismerchant friend and negotiator in britainwere members of that group of people andit indicates that in spite of this quarrel that theinterests of the two nations as far as slavery was concerned we'reidentical so it tells us something about the americanrevolution as a struggle for liberty and it gives us a perspectiveon what liberty and republicanism was and was notand as far as african americans were concernedrepublicanism and liberty at that time was meaninglessmeek hasbeen in and johnbirch decided that he was going to issue certificates to
those former enslaved people that would want to be allowed to leave with the britishhe found a lot of resistance from thecolumnists former columnist and as a wayof dealing with their resistance and their angerhe set up this commission and also decided that he was goingto make a list of everyone who he gave a certificate tothat became the book of negroes done primarilyfor the sake of the americans and to be a checkon who was leaving and whether or not they were really in a position to leave eventhough in actuality everyone who was in that book and given that you canmake it was allowed to leave so it was sort of a concession nowortiz big
mistake thatwas son of a concession to the americans to create this listthat they could use to determine who wasactually free and who is not and as a way ofin the future given compensation because according to thetreaty people lost puppy were to be compensated so that was really the idea of the listwhat it tells us is the numbers ofafricans who left and how many women there werehow long they had been free women who took the childrenman who left on their own and then ended up marrying someone and thenhaving children whole families leaving together so you really get a senseof the african american journey from asfar as savannah all the way up to new york city so it's a fascinating
piece of social history it gives the name ofthe person that gives the year which they letthe plantation or their owner and gives the name of the owner gives theagency gives a brief description so we know that many ofthe women who left were saying well we know that many couples left weknow that many families left with children and so it's a very interesting andrather complete list of african americans who were served with the britishband we're able to plead with the britishover the placethe black
loyal assistant called left with the british with temperature certificatewhen to nova scotia some of them ended up in london andwhatley as members of the london poor some of them ended up and something came togermany it was a a very peculiar situation for themajority of them who ended up in nova scotia most of themwere provided with twenty acres of land that was also a result of general birchthe problem was that in nova scotia there werealso white loyalists many of whom have been slave holdersso the racial dynamics were very tense andthey're black loyalists which she did very badly by the white loyalists in novascotia as a result of that some left and went to england but moreimportantly they wanted to go to sierra leone and a movementemerged among the blacks boston king was one of them
to create a group that would go to sierra leone theyfelt that this was really the only place that they can live out their lives in freedomit'sbeen ineurope should you my lord well you pursue mysong wonder from whence my love of freedom sprung once flow these wishes for thecommon good by feeling hot salon best understood by young andlife by seeming cruel fate was snatched from affix fancy happy seatwhat pace excruciating must molest what sorrows labor in my parents'pressed steel was at seoul and by noam is removed that from afather's seasons babe beloved such was my case and can ithen but pray others may never feel to remix way
so sweetly and her first to the earl of dartmouth who wassecretary of the american department she wrote that one and seventy seventy twoit speaks to a number andreally important touching issues for african americans at thattime phyllis wheatley was about seven years oldwhen she was taken from africa the pamperedslave in the weekly home who very early learned latin and greekand very early showed signs of poetic brillianceand as a young woman writing this you get avery strong sense of what africa meant to her what itmeant and what she still remember about being taken away from her parentsat the same time she's speaking as an
american and identified with the americancause that if she as a little girl can feelthe pangs of tyranny and being taken away from her parentsthen she certainly can understand the things that the columnistfeel in terms of being mistreated bythe british soul phyllis wheatley isan african and american heart she hasdecided through her education through herlove of america to become a spokeswomanfor the american cause and that does not meanthat she is any less sorrowful for having beentaken away from her country but she is at that point in herlife an american and identifying with the american cause and it's very
touching because this is an identity that she hasassumed which the americans really don't care aboutshe represents someone who has invite the americanspirit of liberty and yet the spirit of liberty is not meant toapply to her she isn't exceptional african american woman andso she has that advantage but on the whole the spirit ofliberty that she is passing in this poem was not meant for africanamericans that did not mean that they didn't experience that indeed they did andthat's what she's representing soaked her poems can be looked at and toplay squash you can look at them as that a comment on the hypocrisythat it's evident not only in thebritish that and the americans as well because she is a slave inamerica probably run over on a british ship the purchased by bostonians so there's a kind
of hypocrisy and the british as well as in the americans that ithink this poem speaks to but hisinner livesher lifeone thing that fills with these poems and thefact that she is a well read not to say simply literate african americanwoman it really speaks to in a sensea different experience for some african americans particularly those in thenortheast that she would be able to aspire to this levelof development intellectual development so it pointsto the irony of american lifethat somewhere in her early life her
mistress sauce bark and decided to cultivate itbut there were many african girls with the spark that simplydiedfb should you my lord only pursue my songwonderful once my love of freedoms from whence flow these wishes for thecommon good by feeling hot salon best understoodit young and life by seeming cruel fate was snatched from affixfancy happy seat where paintings excruciating must molest whatsorrows labor in my parent's arrest steele was that soul andby noam is removed that from a father seized his babe eleven
such was my case and can identify preyothers may never feel to remix wayit was excellentshe'd you my lord well youpraise stable should you my lord well you pursue mysong wonder from whence my lover freedoms brown onceflow these wishes for the common good by feeling high school loan bestunderstood it on in life by seeming cruel fatewas snatched from africa's fancy happy seat whatpaying to excruciating must molest what sorrows labor and myparents press steeled was that soul and by noon
is removed from a father's seat has begunsuch such was my case and canidentify prey others may never feel to remix wayit young in life by seeming cruel fatewas snatched from affix fancied happy seat what pangsexcruciating must molest with sorrows labor in my parentsfirst steele was sold and buy my knees removed thatfrom a father's seizedchaikin it young and life soit on in life by seeming cruel fate was snatched from affixfancied happy seat what pangs excruciating must molest
what solve labor and my parents first steelewas that sold and buy new ms removed that from a father seizedhis paper love such such was my caseand can identify prey others may never feel toremix wayitreally was certainlya christian and her belief systemas a young girl of seven livingin boston and then going to maturity in bostonin a very religious family we can't really saythat sie hat an african spiritual background herbackground was christianity but i think so sweetly like many african
americans saw christianity as a religionthat spoke to their egalitarian are some and i think thatthat is the way she used to christianity and that is the way acv of christianity christianity became ahumanizing spirituality for african americans aspirituality that was part of their african heritage andthat does not mean that they were people who imbibedeverything in christianity because there were certain contradictions in the christian religionthat many people maintain supported the enslavementso african americans were not christians in the sensethat they believe everything that was talked to them about christianity orthat they believed everything which they read in the bible and it's also
important to remember that at that time inamerican culture christianity was away and with africanamericans could express their sense of liberty and theirsense of freedom i think that many people like phyllis wheatley and other africanamericans at that time who are literate who were writing felt that christianitywas an ideology of liberation and i think that that's how they usedit was the danger andwithin the council thedanger christianity one slave people is it could be a doubleedged sword that there were there's many waysin which people who supported the slave odyssey could use thebible to support christianity as there was forafrican americans and religious groups like the quakers aka
became anti slavery to support freedomso the contradictions within the bible createdproblems for african americans who wanted to use it as an ideology of liberationthe dangers of christianity was thatwhites felt that christianity was something thatafrican americans were not to have access to anextenta dangera danger would be thatchristianity might promote docility it might promote weaknessand it might encourage african americans to be content with
a lot so african americans have to be very selectiveabout how they used their religious culture that they wereexposed to a white society and they had to also hang onto theirown sense of spirituality as african people and to attemptto take both traditions and try and create something that was a serviceable forthem at that particular historical moment butit really screws do any of that this changeherei'mlike i say something about the relationship between christianity andafricana to payit's important too keep in mind that
african americans were not christians for quitea long time that christianity was areligion that the whites did not want them exposed tohow because of certain egalitarian principles and the newtestament because of the militant jewish nationalism of the old testament sothere was a concerted effort to keep christianity away from them that this was an effortthat certain religious groups fatah and as some african americansbecame christians they also resisted the effort to keep it away from them but for the mostpart most african americans were not exposed to thetenets of christianity as we in the modern times think of them butafrican americans had a spiritual purview and it was aspirituality based on there own africanbackgrounds merging with certain tenets of christianity it's also
important to keep in mind that africans came from cultures that hadsome principles that can to christianity they believed in a supreme god theybelieved in an afterlife they believe in the concept of the soul theybelieved in something different in terms of what happens to the soul and the bodyafter a person dies but they hadvery important tenants that they brought with them that fit in to christianityalso there were some africans from the congo and the reason that we're familiar with certainaspects of christianity through the portuguese so christianitywas not something that was totally new to them and even sold with thesituation of slave holders not wanting them to know that much aboutchristianity where their own community network that wasrelatively and cultural isolation christianity was something
that for many years was that kind of the periphery of theirculture in which they would take parts of it and use it andtake other parts and and ignore it so it was really acreation of african beliefs and those parts ofthis western religion that they found useful for them importantpart of christianity and wouldn't youknow it ispeople in bondage would be very taken by the story of moses leading the children onin egypt that was a very important theme for africanamericans and that was the kind of militancy and thestory of the jews that slave holders didn't want the africansto implied and of course later onafricans use those very genes for resistance
africa's also believed that that chasm meantfreedom and plow chairs and other slaveholders were very weary of missionaries going amongst theafricans and baptize them because for africans thatrepresented a rite of passage a transition something had to change if i'mbaptized i'm a new person as was the case in africanculture but what is very important african culture and it represents atransformation so for africans being baptized had to methat something about the most different and also the europeans one of thejustifications for enslaved africans was that they were he saidok and baptized i'm along the heathen then i should be free so this wassomething that the slave holders had to deal with because for africans it represented a transitionand even the laws were passed specifically stated that baptism does not
confer freedom africans didn't believe it until these aspectscan be seventy threefb it'sbeenthe protestsbegan the period of the american revolution representsafrican americans the first
concerted freedom struggle thatpermeates the entire colonial population of african americansit represents in the first period when african americans as a whole and entiregroup from georgia all the way up to the northeast areon the move and seeking freedom and they havealways been seeking freedom since they came to the colonies but it'salways been resistance to rebellion there are robberiespoisonings fires sporadicbut the ideology of the revolution the ideology ofrepublicanism that permeates white society is picked up ontime very meaningful way by african americans and theymove and the entire countryside with all of that the turmoil and thedestruction that takes place because of the war in the middle of all that
it's this constant movement along like a long blackline from savannah all the way up to new york so thati think for african americans things will never be the sameafter the american revolution in terms of theirconcepts about the ideology of freedomrepublican ideasthere wasanything that they can help him was aframework in the book a lot because it uses therepublican either ok scott just talkthe constitution itself isnot a republican document what makes the constitution
republican and at least choirs it gal italian is thebill of rights without that the constitution is adocument designed to serve property holders so we have to look atthe constitution as one document thatsupports propagate interest mainly and then we have to look at the bill of rights which is reallyfor the people as white people especially white males but thefact that it's in there and the fact that it has the guaranteed rights forcitizens at least opens up the argument for africanamericans and of course for women in terms of what is a citizen because theserights in there for citizens then people were defined outsideof that the other can aspire to citizenship so that theycan retrieve some of these rites without the bill of rights than there would be nothing
to go onfbthe bill of rights opens up the constitution and makes it a documentof republicanism and choirs a deleterious himit is what makes america ademocracy for quite for white males essentially andmore than african americans for white females but certainly not for everyonebut the fact that the bill of rights is the air provides an
avenue for americans living in the unitedstates and yet not considered americans to at some point in their historysay hey wait a minute that includes me too and that's what african americans do that's howthey use the bill of rights that's how they use republicanism can youon adebate that help frame for meat the argument around slavery and how you canbeone of the biggest issues in the constitution and the constitutionaldebate an issue that almost it's completedcompletely disintegrated the convention was over theissue of enslavement and how you regardedenslavement and of course how you regard the enslaved these
southern people a southern man at the constitutionalconvention what slavery to be part of the documenteven though the word slavery is not mentioned in the constitutionit's implied in many ways and so and very importantly forself got what they wanted and then let's answer to that was that this young womencan get a constitution because and slade people wereproperty and a certain attitude was that they had aright to keep their property many in the north weremaking noise about ending slavery indeed massachusetts hadended slavery by the time the constitutional conventionpennsylvania had a gradual many mission are new york and new jersey would dilly dally andtrying to five to tie but it was in the air
and the southerners were afraid of that because once the northemancipated they're on people then this was a senator's wereconcerned they were going to look to them to do the same thing because there's alsoan emerging anti slavery movement among why to have previouswaves especially the quakers so it's a contradiction and it's a conflict for thenorth they want a strong federal government to protecttheir property so want that as well but for thesenators the most important form of property they have ishuman property sold the founding fathers have to makeadjustments and the adjustments which they make findthe people of african descent in bondage until the civil warlet's talk briefly
before about the freedom thati had the woman who i'm seeing for freedomwhat's thesignificance ofmassachusetts it was a seventy one yeahthanks in places likemassachusetts by people like elizabeth freemanand other african americans who petitioned the massachusetts generalcourt these kinds of maneuvers i would eventually leadto the massachusetts general quote by virtue of the constitution of massachusettssaying that all men are created equal whichimplied and and was interpreted by the court as saying that there
was to be no slavery all men being all women butif we can imagine this woman arm the slavewoman reading a constitution andsaying well if everybody is created equal thanthat includes me to and challenging the stategovernment on this issue it was like that thatforced the massachusetts legislature to look long andhard at the whole contagion of liberty and there wereother african americans who did similar kinds of acts paulcoffee and his brother refused to pay the taxes they werelandowners they were fairly wealthy african americans and yet they had norights they were jailed for this but they were eventually let out of jail
and these kinds of x these kinds of challengesto the state governments eventually led to massiveemancipation for people in various states in the north soin that sense even those who didn't serve in the army eitherin the british or in the american army still worked to bring abouttheir own freedomit was atie it's probablyone of the most colorful individuals during the period the americanrevolution crown all time was actually an enslavedman about twenty twenty one named titus was owned by a quakerand the feminine qualities and tie was a
part of the movement among africans in new jersey he was anenslaved man in monmouth county new jersey but a moment during the waron the part of slaves to leave the plantations it was an interesting situationbecause his own i was a quaker and quicker church had recently come out againstslavery first it's true imitating quakers who in case in theslave trade and then it's communicating quakers who refused to put their bombpeople on the road to many mission which ties owner refused to do akaiser owner was it wasbleak how we were the mostcolorful individuals during the american revolution was a black man incolonel tie enslaved man in monmouth county newjersey and slave by quakers who disobey the gentlequaker ruling that quakers put there and say people on the
road to emancipation sell even though somequaker owned slaves were getting their freedom tie was enemy hadn't especiallycruel master when the american revolution emerged ty emerged as afearless leader he was only about twenty one and thathe commanded pull black and white loyalists andliterally wreaked havoc in new jersey and also in new york hecaptured loyalists he executed loyalists sometimeshe captured page patriots he executedpatriots he visited the region amar monthwhere he was from and burnett and lootedthe slave holders freed slaves had probablyeight hundred men under his command at one point both black and
white and he would capture people if you didn't want to execute themsend them to what was called a sugar house in new york city and that and thengo on his guerrilla raids he was probably more feared in that regionthan any other british loyalist black or whiteand down the kind of guerilla warfare that he engaged and kept thecountry in turmoil even to the point where governorlivingston of new jersey could not send troops to a washingtonbecause he was afraid that this would leave an opening for thai andthat he had to keep his own man with him so it was very important in termsof the morale of african americans because many of them joined himothers who didn't join him certainly got a big charge of the fact that it was thisblack man who was leading these raids against thepatriots freeing slaves and it gave them a sense of
their own capacity and they began to flee the farms and tomove into the british those who didn't join tai an asset to fight inlittle guerrilla skirmishes themselves so he was really largely responsiblefor the the war effort and a nonorderly way but in a seven gorilla way in the new jersey countrysidea very important that individual who remained on the sanebeginning and seventeen seventy eight all the way up through the seventeen atwithroom keys and georgia and how arethose communities who was likely to flee tocommunity what was that
and thenmy room communities were part ofsouthern resistance among african americans almost from thetime africans came to a colony especially the frontiercolonies of carolina and georgia when they fledmany of them would set up communities and many of the people in the enslavedcommunities knew about these communities sometimes fortified them withfood told them when the whites were on the trail so they could move moreand more into the interior some of them formed alliances with indians this was thecase from the carolinas all the way down to florida and i was the case throughout the
colonial era when the american revolution beganthese communities became larger and they became stronger and it'simportant in the context of the american revolution because we tend tothink only in terms of africans going to the british werefighting with the americans or join the indiansbut they also formed their own little villages that little roomsocieties in and settled areas of georgia and various remoteislands in south carolina and in florida and sometimes they would make atax on plantations and then disappear sometimes they would yougoing to these plantations and take people back with them sometimes even byforce and in this way they fortified their communities but during the revolutionthere was an upsurge of these communities and they remained there
they were very hard to get rid of but eventuallyby around eighteen hundred they had all been pretty muchout taken care of as you move intoflorida especially in part a spanish florida you also find theseroom communities some of whom had beeninvolved in my own eyes during the revolution and then rather than be captured had moved intoflorida course these were not fleshed out into law the time of andrew jackson butmore nice was very much a part of the american revolution you experience and it probablyrepresents what anything else the autonomy within some of theafrican american community and probably the more roomswhere meals people who were closest to africa who were comfortable neither would the britishnor with the american tour with the indians but wants to live amongthemselves in their communities as close to an african cultures they
could get itwas acommunity it was a communityof africans who moved away from theplantations usually in a group and set up little communitiesin remote areas where there were not likely to be discovered they growcrops they had livestock they builthomes on base raised families and they hadguards around the fortifications so they were essentially little africanvillages in the frontier regions during the time the record revolutionthere are more and more of these as african americans decided they did
not want to join either one of the war effortsso the cr ocean is who wouldbecome a room probably the people who became a room for those closest to africathose who were least comfortable with british cultureor american culture or indian culture those whohad been born in africa had lived in relatively isolatedsituations like you find in the low country carolina and georgia andonce the war became so intense thatmatches began to flee and what some insight people fled to the britishsome went to the indians these individuals for their own communities and variousislands in the coastal region and now the hinterlandsand always being on the wives for discovery by whites and
they lived out of this kind of a life for us quite a long timeormaybe tenmeans different things different peopleand it meant different things to different african americans for thephillis wheatley freedom meantactual freedom liberty which she was able toobtain but also for her it would mean the ability to expressyourself in a literary fashion because she was a poet a self for herfreedom and physical freedom and calls for freedom of expressionfor africans in rome communities they wanted
freedom away from white culture that to them wasfreedom and that's a different kind of freedom it's not thatrepublican ism of some of the individuals who fought with the british some of the individualswho fought with the american patriot it's a kind of freedom thatharks back to their own heritage and itreally means that they don't want anything to do with american culture so that is theirconcept of freedom and there was other peoplefind that the freedom one is able to obtain in indiancultures to marry with the indians got to still live a relativelyfrontier kind of life but again away from white culture wasanother kind of freedomand since
This record is featured in “Africans in America Interviews.”
Africans in America
Episode Number
Raw Footage
Interview with Margaret Washington, Associate Professor of History, Cornell University. 2 of 4
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WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)
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Margaret Washington is interviewed bout the slave labor economy in the 18th century, Stamp Act and resistance in South Carolina, Boston and Violet King seeking safety with the British, slaves follow the British to New York City, the Treaty of Paris and certificates of freedom, General Birch and The Book of Negroes, Phillis Wheatley's life and poetry, the contradictions and appeal of Christianity, The American Revolution and the first struggle for freedom, The Constitution and Bill of Rights, Elizabeth Freeman and suits for freedom, Colonel Tye, Maroon Societies, concepts of freedom.
Race and Ethnicity
American history, African Americans, civil rights, slavery, abolition, Civil War
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Chicago: “Africans in America; 102; Revolution; Interview with Margaret Washington, Associate Professor of History, Cornell University. 2 of 4 ,” 1998-00-00, WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 20, 2019,
MLA: “Africans in America; 102; Revolution; Interview with Margaret Washington, Associate Professor of History, Cornell University. 2 of 4 .” 1998-00-00. WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 20, 2019. <>.
APA: Africans in America; 102; Revolution; Interview with Margaret Washington, Associate Professor of History, Cornell University. 2 of 4 . Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from