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two weeks later people in amonotone taken into of the army and thejames there were twenty five thousand soldiers alongthe jamestown and they were really than a lot of thefighting here in the potomacand so the sun they gave is okay so about fifty thousandafrican americans made of four percent of the enemy of tennis isso very poor what other people what these dazzling into their books themajority of the southerners did not support the confederacy has one major reasons of thingbut the myth is that most of the girls were pro confederate they were nowwhen you put the statistics togetheryeah and most of them would not support did not support confederate alphabet arenow a lot of you know a lot of pro confederatestoday try to do another way so well we had just come out why but you can
exclude thirty percent a population of selma to african americansand most of them support it the unions and so when you put all those again a plusa pro union people to come out with a majority ofsoutherners do not support confederate army so that's why they start going theydidn't get the missions they need it when they came into an area to fight people just came out of thechecks like this in this book and so much down the road name a wayeven some girls my work and give my handkerchief they never gave him any up inwest tennessee the outright resisted the confederate army would give them any supplies oranything so so they last lyric sung over mandating sixty twothat's why they lost the state so fast but they never really had to supporters now but they stillperpetuate the myth that most of them are supported the confederate army not true atall no more than they support the confederate flag todayhe's busy
what religion became very important after the war and churchesincrease dramatically for the next generation forbecause again they were social institutions of economic institutions of apolitical institutions and most importantly they were academies for trainingleadership and so that's where a lot of african americans get to start tobe leaders were going to be a political leader economically vote fitness leader they get thatstarted a church that was the community networks inside their teachersfrom the church i was an important institution right after slavery africanamerican man dissipated heavily in that search day and compared totoday where we make up perhaps about thirty thirty five percent of ourmembers and african americans churches in about two thirds of more of them i went
today in the church but then it was a leadership academy and so it was a veryimportant to an institution where is due in slavery rico they'remostly these were not exposed to formal religionto churches because most masters when the churchgoers mostand and give an example beyond the plantations that was sitting inwhat is called eleven civil district durham a day into that he'snow sober a single church and distribute it there were no church isso masters all that will be in his district that and go to church thatmuch or schools so what religion slaves head much of it waswhat we call the invisible church and invisible church where their informal churchesout in the woods and the brush our presence on so after slavery that was afirst told him as their own religious institutions in these institutions
became the most productive and important institutions in the black communityaswell really a theology in and doctrine in myopinion did not have a lot to do with it thedevelopmentally african american church all belief in a deity thatwas probably lim among most of the former slavesintheology or doctrine was notthat important and at the roman period they're in churchesalthough most foremost ways belief in a deityand a belly that god was helpful but remember that there's a
billion of african religious beliefs when western european religiousbeliefs that make up what we call the african american penology anabsence of war and the african americansbelieve of course they you know god was halfway and thatultimately they would a santorum a life and that life would bebetter than this particular life but i think the african american churchfbthat african americans believe that god wanted him tobe free but most of them did but also rememberthat the south was the bible belt vanin a way as it is now and many people believe that godinterceded in human events as african americans is so
poorly educated whites and center and theconfederates for example believethat guy was on the us side and they were going to win the war and when they lost thewar confederates were around in creatures are getting therethat it punish the south because of slavery and got a turnaround itpunishes sadness was outlaws because you were being punished for slaveryso the senegalese world but i think most important for thechurch related to african americans was that it wasmore a functional institution that archaeological institutionwith themthat fish
university opened at sixty six for exampleafrican americans weren't making a great push for citizenshipthe civil rights act of eighteen sixty six was ultimately passed bycongress to give citizenship to reform slaves two years later ofcourse we got invited to head into the fourteenth amendment of the constitution they had beenfreed but they had no rights and so african americans like john marshalland stun frederick douglass and as well as local upafrican american leaders and national eye jc nature werepushing for the right of citizenship because you can protect yourselfbeing just a freeman when no constitutional rights whatsoever mightresent that that this would in effect make africanamericans a former slaves constitutional equal tothat and they cannot do anything they wanted to do two and i cannot
exclude him from the courts they cannot exclude them from politics and that is what theywanted to do is there will free the sleigh that will set him up in a differentclass he will not be able to moving to the same classes as whitecitizens so enough is that came to a lot offriction and in may from the first of the sixth of may atsixty six race riot broke out and that race was mostlywhites attacking the negro communityit'sbeen the fbi'sbeenand many haveeighteen sixty six because there was so much conflict between the whitecommunities in the african american communities or the issue of citizenship for the former
slaves race was broke out new orleans and matefirst of the six eighteen sixty six and mrs tennysonand that is where the white police department which was dominated mostly byirishman as well as a fireman and muffins and did thisman an office and mostly the lower classes a widespread attack theafrican american community burning down churches playthisis asurprisemembers of the
memphis police department fire departmentbusinessman and mostly the working class whitesattack the african american community the twain may first and and six forabout five days burning down african american churches andschools and yelling blacks and beating lasteight yearsmembers of the fire department policedepartment which is mostly man by irish immigrantsa businessman and the white working and poor classes in myoffice attack the african american community mayfirst through may six burning down churches and schoolsbeating people killing people some love sixty people alsothat and that particular and almost all the african americans were run
out of town for several days these are mostly former slaves who had flockedinto the city when it was on the union occupation and the first was the day when theunion army ended the occupation of the city and they let the cityand out there will be an african american regiment left in town atfort pickering enough is but the commander of course like theafrican american soldiers in the four they would not let them out so itwouldn't be they would not be a job now but the conflict it startedwhen they refused to allow the police department to rest some of themembers there particular regiment who haven't of the time in front of some of the tab forinstance outside of memphis as a result of that rap orhowever outcome or seven investigation khamenei into the snowand i as is also their report in july congresspassed the civil rights act of eating sixty six which gave african
americans citizenship and the rights they are there for a now headprotection you know they could go to court they could sue people and they could bringcharges against people and so on and now also in the same month the tennesseegeneral assembly approved under other proposals fourteenth amendment to theconstitution which will embody that civil rights activating sixty sixand tennessee consequently was and made it back into the union in the summer of waitingsixty six so they were disadvantaged has advantages on that rat but it didset the tone for a pretty productive period where africanamericans in tennessee for making sixty six and to the conservative korea starts again and eatingseventythese bishopsbe wellwhy did whites target schools and churches and
businesses during that race riots made at sixty sixprecisely because working class and lower class whitesok they targetthem because theytargeted those schools and churches and even african american businessesstarted during the civil war because working class and more classwhites resent it any progress made by the former slaves andby eighteen sixty six and memphis and nashville and new orleans and other parts ofthe south for most ways an african american freed menwere making a tremendous amount of progress that established businesseschurches of screws they are we're at thispakistan's benevolent societies around cemeteries variousinstitutions and of course it was a socialist way to whites and
so that the former slaves would be moving so fastthe whole problem is why so afraid that blacksand not only become equal to them that that they are going to exceed themthis iswhen physicists create the formationof his supporters werewell one of the problems duringthe war that would help to create a fiskuniversity was the lack offree public education for the former slavesafter the americans have for one quite a few schoolsright after the union army occupied national but those were schools
we had to pay like about wilma consul and at sixtythree the army ask and i'm allfor churches to come down and help with all these fugitive slavesflocking into town and so many churches for missionary groupsthe methodist missionary society for example the baptists whomission society almost given the nomination form a missionary societyraise money and senate when men and women into the southernstates to help the formal soy especially to educate him to provide churchisn't so and so by eighteen sixty fournationalists feel what about a dozen different mission or societies in townand one of them is the congregational church and that one forms wherescalia american missionary association amaand eight combat what the framers bureau and the union army and the sum of
waiting sixty fivethe congregationalchurch of new england is one of those twelve also missionary societyisn't commenting nashville and to tennessee to have a formerslave make the transition from slavery to trade union army had tried toserve as a social agency but the word to simply awayand insulate had this for him from the mill and the church's respondedso indecent of making sixty five the america america mrassociation which is an arm of the congregational church it
forms a alliance with the free ms carolyn davidson county and whatthe union army in davison county to start a school forformer slaves and they call that fisk frisco name at the clean boyand fierce who was a general in the army and also was he and other freebiesbureau for kentucky and tennessee district and january ofnineteen sixty six they formally open that school for spheresfriedman school and the stillness i'm not a lot i'm not required to paytuition fees as a giant poster of a negro proprietors goes andso they can come and most of the tuitions fees and donate by norman churches andthey raised money to keep it going until the american missionary associationwell the ama is that basically the way that it was started when it was consideredto be a day effort also the twain local black
leaders and also the northern white missionaries as the way tothe adventure really started off and at the opening ceremoniesso mostly of low african american leaderswhat was his goalone does this university amedicinal waters phase frisco decide to charge itselfas fish overstate and at sixty seven one ofthe things that happens is that the tennessee general assembly passes a publicschool building and at sixty seven spring meetings at seven and end atpublic school deal they provide that there will be schoolsfor the roles and for whites only will be segregated schools so westart with city schools public schools and the fall
of beating sixty seven nashville opensits public schools which have been closed since the unionarmy came to town in eating sixty two national had a public school system for meeting fordepleting sixty two for whites only of course and so and at sixtyseven m us open the schools for blacks and whites and so they opened a blackscreen and now blacks can go to public school free they don't have to paytuition fees anything so although the freemans collegesschools in town now converter collegian status because they're nolonger needed to prove that grammar school education that is going to be provided by the cityso in the fall of waiting sixty seven fisher issuesleaders decide to convert to quote a more national characterand that is to go toward a university so they get a charter
from the state and they've accomplished over stayed at city centerthank youwillso whenever the school opens and at sixty seven and eatingsixty eight as a collision institution we studentsnow have to pay some tuition fees in order to operate as too soon aswell this station is in bad financial straitsbecause mostly men have no money andno you knowit's beenmostly men have no money and arrow
therefore they cannot pay their bills on a regular basis is secondly afterthe war there were several recessions economicrecessionsthank youmost friedman had no money out but now they have to paytuition fees on a regular basis is also after the warthere were several economic recessions agriculture was depressed for wowand saw that the slaves worked as leading the farms and plantations inmigrating into the cities and the towns and so many peoplewhose families were rooted in the rural areas but not have steady incomeand the missionaries also having trouble raisingmoney you know among the mormon church'spastor
and missionaries werehaving trouble raising money among the mormon church issold by at sixty nine fish universityhad to come to depend upon a singing groupit wasvery importantwell it'd be the singer's raised quite a bit of moneylocally and then they of course twelve concert says while his atlantaand the money that they raise was veryimportant to the daily operations of the institutionby at seventy one for examplefish universes decided to do a new campus to move out of the old smoky
downtown readily raggedy buildings which are mostlyplain barracks and for what billings aleppo had by theunion army and they relocate to a site on allfour gill which was a former union decided they get full of nothingand decide to build a main building here which ultimately will be called jubileehall and when you look at the records of the construction of that building the constructionsuperintendent is always complaining that he needsmore money to come intotheus but the unofficial jubilee singersraised money not only to deal the main building on the new campus atsalem street in jefferson straight same street today's meeting and
roll out but also that money was going into the operations of theschool and the building superintendent julieholland's complaining that the president or the promswhile the university to put more pressure on the students to pay their billsso that so much money from the jubilee singers were not have to go into the operatingbudget and more that money can go into the construction but so the construction ofa haul of jubilee hall a strung out from making seventy one and tillyoccupy that billing in generating seventy six and because of money isslowly coming in an unnatural if it hadnot been for the jubilee singers or perhaps to university and worked onhesays
is itwhen the jubilee singers are returned to the united states from their tour abroadand you're an eighteen seventy the south isa different place it's a more conservative placeafrican americans who have political power have lost most of their politicalpower where's the republican party had control many of the state government's thedemocratic party which was the pro confederate party had nowregain most of the states in tennessee they have taken over and they nowcontrol the state may appears the poll tax to take away the right to vote formost african american voters and at seventy eight it's also
when benjamin perhaps singleton davis and counties now leading the black exodus out tokansas and thousands of former slaves a leading tennesseekentucky and mississippi because they have no hope that things are going to changeand they're going out to kansas where they can find their own farms and go homestates because under the homestead act beating sixty four making sixtytwo also by eating seventy eight african americanshave not a single seat on the city council whereas by eating sixty nineafter they grew up playing the right to vote in eating sixty seven they will fileafrican american man sitting on the city council elected to the city councilnashville and at seventy eight jubilee singers come back there's not asingle one and the society is increasingly segregatedde facto and ultimately by law by the time that they come backso they come back to a south and a city that is
rich rigidly racially divided and eighteen sergeyniceworkonce they come back to the united statesthere was the jubilee singers come back to the united statesthey will find that there are opportunities nowherenear the ones ahead in europe they will face segregatedfacilities they will face a restrictive to educational oraccess they will be relegated to lordeconomic jobs and opportunities in the society and they will becoming back to us all where terrorism and especiallyelection raises its ugly it by the late eighteen
seventies and really takes off and four fourths twenty eighteen at one inat ninety two squaretherewas a juice iswhat reducesrepresentsuethe jubilee singers represents achievementfor african americans in the united states at that period of time in the eighteenseventies the community was extremely proud of thembecause they perform in and gain accessto find out why society that most african americans did not
and mostly they perform for the elite class of weapons and thenbefore the working class and the poor whites and they were able to go intoplaces and to do things and see things that most african americanshad no opportunity to do or say especiallyam leaving to go abroad to year that was exciting forall african americans because the jubilee singers idiot whenmost african americans would not be able to do for generations to comeand in fact now we're walking onthat you have a large number of african americans to leave the boundaries of thiscountry says they had been imported into this country from africa as slavesand a slave was a person's whose mentality wasconfined to an oppressive mentality because his experiences weredoing gasoline you didn't know anything else that the typical view
This record is featured in “Jubilee Singers Interviews.”
American Experience
Jubilee Singers: Sacrifice and Glory
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Interview with Bobby L. Lovett, Historian
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WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)
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Bobby Lovett Interview about a group of young ex- slaves in Nashville, Tennessee, who set out on a mission to save their bankrupt school by giving concerts. Traveling first through cities in the North, then on to venues across Europe, the Jubilee Singers introduced audiences to the power of spirituals, the religious anthems of slavery. Driven to physical collapse and even death, the singers proved more successful - and more inspirational - than anyone could have imagined.
Race and Ethnicity
American history, African Americans, civil rights, racism, lynching, Mississippi
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Chicago: “American Experience; Jubilee Singers: Sacrifice and Glory; Interview with Bobby L. Lovett, Historian,” WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed May 20, 2019,
MLA: “American Experience; Jubilee Singers: Sacrifice and Glory; Interview with Bobby L. Lovett, Historian.” WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. May 20, 2019. <>.
APA: American Experience; Jubilee Singers: Sacrifice and Glory; Interview with Bobby L. Lovett, Historian. Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from