Long, Hot Summer '64; Episode Two
Elliot Norton reviews will be heard next Monday evening at 6:00. Long Hot Summer 64 a weekly summary an in-depth report on the struggle for civil rights in the south. This is dead mascot producer of long hot summer 64. This week two stories have been in the headlines the mysterious disappearance of the reasonable rights workers in Mississippi and the Wade in attempts in St. Augustine Florida. We will have reports on both these stories on tonight's program as well as some interesting letters to the editors from a Mississippi newspaper and the St. Augustine Florida newspaper. First here is a report from Oxford Ohio the location of the Council of federated organizations known as co full training program for Mississippi civil rights workers. I'm sure that young people are going to go to what community. On the Mississippi summer project arrived arriving
at Ohio Monday night almost immediately acted like they began to attend sessions on their particular project and most visibly excited. I could hear them talking enthusiastically with their friends there on the phone with their parents describing the curriculum of the freedom our new method of your semi-literate. But something else was happening on Sunday evening at around 9:00 p.m. began to come in already in the city about three missing workers. At that time no Taylor joining the official in the county. My knowledge of their whereabouts. Then the next morning the report about McCain Warner and Goodman again that the whole country began to come in we volunteers first heard about it at the end of a general orientation meeting in the middle of the summer project director and I think describing the political and social conditions in Mississippi and emphasizing the potential danger of going there. Someone came in and
with something he paused momentarily suspended over a one on one carefully. After a moment he had read one of the wife of one of the missing men. Go volunteer immediately why their congressmen and senators asking for help. The information itself is a longer time with family. For that reason Monday night into Tuesday morning with a period of serious doubt working as hard as possible to locate the missing that and with ways of responding to the incident the volunteers were calmly setting their particular time and right thing in Iraq. But after a week yesterday I think Morgan left Birmingham after a frank talk about the killing of the four children might call the mood of the volunteers under one of the side again. Morgan had been telling us of the dangers in the city but even talking with and I think it was several questions. Now the point is to recreate the thing that we would have several of the question came
from a negro field worker stood up to that man. Morgan knows what he's talking about for 10 minutes he told us but remember how how hard how dangerous how destructive and how people work there have been I think other how all they had was each other and I would have thought it would have the side of the work in hand with me with biting the control of the negro girl another member of the couple set up the silence that held up her head and got the part I don't want anyone getting paid for that. I think he's lucky to be alive during all this were traveling in a car the submachine gun to make one of the bullets in the back pack. After that the meeting with the second we older people began to leave both of us walked up to the building for the orientation building the administrative headquarters of the project. At that
time some of the tech workers were going to help accounting help out the workers that were already in right now and they can't leave. I think I can hardly started to think. We held hands in time we shall overcome. But if we sign and sign I think that as were the way of making it when it began to drive with the airport what the airport at the time it would take a back everything we mark it down and we will overcome the fate of Western college. We go there anyway to think it will make you go. During the evening more the second one particular project but now concerned about what would happen all of a summer reading. There was a there was a story about 330 bombing the kind of thing and we all heard about it and I think that was the kind of thing and I think this morning the reference chain
began to give a somewhat academic talk on nonviolence and what people listen to very carefully yesterday. Thank question very hard today there were precisely what we do when I think of the family that we were living with the threat that we remain nonviolent that rumors began to spread and there was a quickening for all of us. So the need to analyze and analyze everything that might happen in the thing before we go out. The striking thing about the project is that no want to point out my own impression is that the new that we think has strengthened our desire to go to Frank and I. For example one of the first part of the I mean I think I think wrong but we can't let what appears to be a random page and attempt to drive the project out.
We can't let that report recorded yesterday from Paul Callan in Oxford Ohio on the mood of the coal for workers there in light of the disappearance of three fellow workers in Mississippi. Before we hear from an eyewitness demonstrator in St. Augustine Florida on the way to in a temp in that city there was the latest news from the Associated Press on the three young workers. The massive search for the three missing civil rights workers in Mississippi stepped up today when President Johnson ordered 200 sailors from the meridian Naval Air Station into the hunt. The first contingent of 100 sailors led by two naval officers and an FBI inspector moved into a swampy area six to 10 miles long near the spot where the missing trios burned out station wagon was found Tuesday. A Navy helicopter buzzed overhead. A White House statement earlier today that 200 Marines would join the search was withdrawn as having been made an error. Presidential news Secretary George Reedy said there was no plan to send in Marines. President
Johnson kept in close touch with the Mississippi search today making telephone calls to Governor Paul Johnson FBI director J Edgar Hoover. Many civil rights leaders and the parents of the missing men. News Secretary Reedy says the president got a telephone briefing on the fact finding mission a former CIA chief Allen Dulles. Johnson's personal representative on the scene. Meanwhile a drive in restaurant operator in Marion Alabama has reported he saw a man Tuesday night who resembled pictures he saw later of one of the civil rights workers missing in Mississippi. The FBI and the Alabama Public Safety Office are checking the report although new There appears to put much stock in it. And in another development a congressman from Mississippi Arthur instead told the House today the disappearance of three civil rights workers may be a hoax hoax intended to produce unfavorable public. In a release from Noel day's office Noel day running for U.S. Congress from Congressional District 9 in Boston yesterday he accused President Johnson in the
justice department of irresponsibility and failing to protect adequately lly US citizens working for equal rights in Mississippi. They said there was absolutely no excuse for the disappearance of the three co four workers in Philadelphia Mississippi. The federal government has traditionally used troops to protect U.S. nationals in foreign lands. Yet it has consistently refused to offer the same guarantees to American citizens in the south. On Tuesday day continued President Johnson assured the parents of two of the missing boys that he would do everything possible. They went on to say yet twice within the past two wigs he is asked to assigned a force of federal marshals to Mississippi as a preventive measure. The president has not responded to either of these but the actions yet he should have been aware of the danger. Even without these attempts to call his attention to the possibility of death and violence in Mississippi this summer surely an intelligent system capable of securing information in Cuba and South Vietnam can secure information in Mississippi. An old day went on to suggest three things that Johnson should
do. Number one assignment of a force of federal marshals directed and empowered to make arrests as well as to investigate to a directive to the Department of Justice to open and maintain an office in Mississippi under the personal supervision of Attorney General Kennedy Burke Marshall or Nicholas Katzenbach and three. A directive to the U.S. Civil Rights Commission to hold extended public hearings in Mississippi this summer. Day went on to say the proposed conference between Allen Dulles and Gov. Paul Johnson will not prevent lawlessness at this point but it might have done so when co first urged such a conference last month. But the president failed to respond then too. Those are the words of an old day in a release from his office yesterday. Now for a report from St. Augustine Florida. Here was a telephone conversation recorded late this afternoon between myself and Jim Jackson leader of the local Negro youth council in St. Augustine and today himself up. Does a bend in the way you attempt at St. Augustine's public beach. But if you go up to the beach today you tell us what happened
to the beach and two on it. And we were brought about in this group about how many there were you. Close to where there are any whites with you. We had to ride. Who are they and where were they from. And Mike Tyson here they say. And so what when you got there to the world a block and a system back in the water and he said that he would be arrested. And so we further down the beach. You know and you know this white female He's just there. What do you mean he
started when he started to was on the rest of you know tied down. And hit you and so forth. But other other negroes who were in the water did get hit. And then what did the police do you know directly behind that and arrested in South Beach. Did they arrest. How many would you guess they arrest him. Well I know 13 of us and I was about the same things that about twenty six twenty six thirty. And Jim as you've been holding these what the press called these weighed in attempts at the beach for a number of days now haven't you. Yes and that is what happened today. Similar to what has been happening all week. From what's been happening on this side to give us protection. And in the you know what happened in the past.
Well you know the thing up on the beach and then go down there. You know but today you know it's sad to think so because it's against that we're that right down to it and so we had no problem down to the water. I understand this. Someone told me that the two leaders of your group were arrested is that correct. Yes I did. And it also won one of the guys with a boat from Venice where the negro is arrested if it were nonviolent. But this is a you know since he died the way you would be arrested also for fighting fighting back. That's interesting. Could you tell me what do you know in the past what Judge Mathis has been setting his bond for these people for the next
day to set a bar I don't need $25 or $25. Well that's a lot different from in past weeks in the gym yesterday. We've had twenty point twenty five hundred we know from someone who's been the weapon on Apple when he was arrested and that was the day after well. I don't know about that and the bonds of range from 25 to 200. And is that you know those bonds hold true for the white segregationists right. That was a phone conversation I had late this afternoon with Jim Jackson leader of the local Negro youth council in St. Augustine and who today as you heard took part in the second wait an attempt of the day. The Associated Press comments on this demonstration this afternoon. It reports another attempt by Negroes to stage a weighed in at the St. Augustine Florida beach produced a brawl today the fighting broke out when close to 100 negroes
accepted the day or of 75 white segregationist to enter the water. State police Rushton would swing clubs and arrested a dozen persons including two whites. Several negroes were beaten. That's the Associated Press report. This afternoon I also spoke with Fred Martin in St. Augustine Florida. The last time we talked you was a week ago which was the day before the grand jury handed down their recommendation. One of you might tell us what that recommendation was by this grand jury investigating the situation in St. Augustine and what was Dr. King's reaction to it and why. Well the grand jury and Dr. King interpreted this demonstration for 30 days and then they would consider forming a biracial committee which was reading. And it wouldn't take five deliberation to sort of
thing. There really hadn't been any serious consideration given to the real problem and I think Dr. King followed that. We might consider halting demonstrations biracial immediately and demonstration for the biracial but for 30 consider doing something anything and feeling about the problem. I mean we we have. Good information reliable information on things that are. Understandable to the grand jury would come down to recommend this grand jury appointed by a state official general or something like that. I can't
recall if it came from the state office office. Dr. King's statement here with the grand jury. Well I think it was a pretty typical reaction. Good Lord what you want you know after everything we've done for you and then you turn around and bite the hand that sort of reaction. Here we here we set up a grand jury situation and here we came out with the statement that if you recall the grand jury that came out with this leadership here it was quite strong and they felt the grand jury did it for anything. Then I was there.
More tension in the community in some areas. Time seems to know it. It's kind of a hard thing to you know depend on the kind of person that you run into I know that the Klan and the way the council of the national people and all these organizations are better organized. We need to be able to pull out larger numbers of a specific time. You know all three of those organizations are present. I can't remember the name of it. There's one other organs all these are working together here in order for one of our civil rights workers who are torn up at the county jail. And there are hang around there. I got it back in a gradual fix to the big thing Dr. King. To take your nickers
back to Africa before we take him to the gas chamber it was natural that white people and the other organization which I can't recall the name of the moment. So all these organizations sort of cordon their efforts here. That's what you want a real major problem. It's becoming a real confrontation down there isn't it. These organizations set up many offices and saying all this you know telephone numbers where we might talk to them and they can like no I don't not well I don't believe their lives couldn't tell you for sure. I mean we know that certain person in charge and certain birth to a coordinated effort through you know on the battery and all that sort of thing but as far as a formal office organization. They tend to stay underground. He's the owner of this white attorney from Atlanta still in town.
I'm not sure I haven't heard anything in a while ago but I'm not too sure we couldn't say for sure one way or the other. I wouldn't be surprised. Because the rumors of course in this room are sort of good but the charity thing. The rumor of the Klan is sort of here this weekend in March there was a lot of people in Jacksonville there are people here that live Jack were visiting recognize a lot of them. Jack Jackson did have sort of a much stronger Klan element or leanings than seeing Augustine well organized. People are really short wave radio and all that sort of thing.
I saw that radio shortwave radio organization and I was and so you know. Raiders are sort of court lined up in that organization with a radio radio. He's the one the director of the cars are parked up on called shot you know in a way of getting people in there moving around. It's on there there's a new member of the power structure right. But he is a good hatchet man and there's an interesting article in Life magazine with a good article a very good article one of the first articles on the national scene I think that is really sort of to the face of the problem and. Those are those magazines available in St. Augustine.
I don't know I've never checked and I can guess what some of the people that they're getting here and they're getting it here. That was a telephone conversation I had late this afternoon with Fred Martin a young white man who has been working with the Southern Christian Leadership Conference in St. Augustine Florida for a little over a month. Now we mentioned the beginning of tonight's program that we would have some interesting letters to the editor from some of the Southern papers. We have time now for a letter from the St. Augustine Record of last Sunday June 21st and it will become obvious it was written by a white resident of St. Augustine. Editor of the record. How would you feel if you had been a resident of this community for over four years. I see the same people every day that profess to be your friends and your employer has to relieve you of your job and your so called friends renounce you in a few hours. If I had committed a crime I could understand but to stand up for my own rights as an American I cannot see the
reason for the colored people are winning when they succeed in getting our race to fight among ourselves. I'm a resident on the beach. I mind my own business work or did work take care of my home. I haven't been down to the demonstrations. I could care less about them. The first day Negroes came to the beach I felt they were invading my personal property. Why should I leave. Giving them the privilege of knowing they were the cause of it. I am certainly not an integrationist. Why should such demonstrations deny me of my every day life. I was on the beach with my 2 year old son when the negroes arrived. I was not about to have them run me out of the water. As a result I have been fired received many threatening phone calls telling me to leave town and I'm a nigger lover. I'm not supporting Martin Luther King but the people who are fighting against our own race are my employer also had calls of the same nature. So that is why I am unemployed. Are these people now going to support my baby. The whole majority must live in harmony
with each other now to set a good example before the world and the community they are live in tranquility and harmony will never be reached unless a white person ignores demonstrations and wild fist fights and uses nonviolent tactics and sensible reason. Should such a person be condemned as an integrationist a stone thrower is admired. A silent watcher is slandered. The world watches. A letter assigned Mrs. D gives a letter to the editor appeared in last Sunday's edition of The St. Augustine Record St. Augustine Florida. Now we just have time to hear a small portion of an interview conducted by Barbara Miller a young student at Radcliffe College who interviewed a very unusual student at Harvard. He's a liberal from Mississippi. This is if you will how many visitors this summer after an orientation in Ohio. There will be many student groups going down to Mississippi to teach in the freedom
schools. And also how do you think most of the white Mississippi citizens will react to these visitors. Well I'm afraid that they're not going to react well this is something that that you know of course and you're already expecting it but I'm of the opinion certainly that what white Mississippians think of the students coming down is really a far less importance than what colored Mississippians think of the students coming down. And I really think that the reception that the students will get this summer. Will be good from this angle there's going to be some violence I'm afraid but I hope not much. There's some people who say the northerners can do more for integration by staying home and they can by going down south and stirring up feeling. What do you think. Yeah I've heard this view and certainly it has some some merit. But as a matter of fact I stand diametrically opposite this I think for instance that Mrs. Malcolm Peabody's recent journey into the South
did one heck of a lot of good and I have told people this before and I after seeing the effects of the students who worked last summer in Jackson Mississippi I think that the good they did far offset any stirring up of the white community you know most people who talk about getting Mississippi and stirred up what they really mean is getting white Mississippian stirred up. And this is only half of the story. Now I saw these people speak in churches and I thought that when they talked to Negro Mississippians call them Mr. and Mrs. that the little things like this which seem so one important to us who live in a world of communications and newspapers that tell about foreign countries and such things we don't realize how much importance our young white college student can can have in the life of a colored person who's never known a white person who will actually treat him as a human being or expect him to react as an intelligent person.
So I think that Northern people and people in general can do the most by coming where the down to where the problem really is. What do you think will be the effect of this summer's activities on both the white community and the colored community. Well on the white community. I think that there are going to be very mad. They already know that people are coming down as you know in Mississippi they've began to train what they're calling an army and they have a baby blue tank which I guess you people will come into contact with which has a flame throwers and machine guns in the sort of thing. And it's going to be a lot of self-righteous talk about we don't come to New York telling you how to run your problem so stay away. If however violence is averted and the students can learn to to simply take it lying down and not fight back then I think they'll be able to get through the summer. Now as far as the colored
community this of course is the real key in this is the reason for the movement as I said see it going down this summer. I really do hope that they can make contact with as many colored people as they can. And. I think that that they will not through anything that they will do in registering voters and not do anything that they will do in actually breaking down segregation barriers. But mainly through just talking with and giving hope and inspiration to colored people they can can give this country a big step forward this summer. That was a junior at Harvard a liberal who was from the state of Mississippi a most unusual person. He was talking with Barbara Miller who was a student at Radcliffe College and who is now in Mississippi gathering some reports they will hear in future weeks. You have been listening to long hot summer 64 a weekly summary and in-depth report on the civil rights movements and developments in the south long hot summer 60
- Long, Hot Summer '64
- Episode Two
- Producing Organization
- WGBH Educational Foundation
- Contributing Organization
- WGBH (Boston, Massachusetts)
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If you have more information about this item than what is given here, we want to know! Contact us, indicating the AAPB ID (cpb-aacip/15-02c86fs0).
- The second in a series of weekly news reports documenting the civil rights movement during the summer of 1964 includes a report by Paul Cowan from an Oxford, Ohio, Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) training program to prepare teachers in the Mississippi Summer Project and reactions there to the news that three colleagues, Andrew Goodman, James Chaney, and Michael Schwerner have mysteriously disappeared. Latest Associated Press news on the workers. A telephone conversation with Jim Jackson, leader of local youth council in SA, wadein. Blocked by group. Close to 50, two whites from Gainsville. White female attacked. Hell broke loose. Police arrested and order us off beach. Wade-in attempts at beach. Two leaders of group arrested. Why? NV, bt if beat, arrested for fighting. AP comments: another attempt produced a brawl. Accepted a dare. Spoke with FM. Grand jury handled down recommendation. Said that N should cease demos for 30 days and would then consider an biracial committee. Info that head is a segregationist. Reaction to Dr. Ks statement: typical white reaction. Bites hand. Groups better organized now. Read letter to editor. Interview by Barbara Miller. A liberal from Mississippi. Q about whether could accomplish more by staying home. Produced for the Educational Radio Network. For information on the St. Augustine movement, see David J. Garrow, ed., St. Augustine, Florida, 1963-1964: Mass Protest and Racial Violence (Brooklyn: Carlson Publishing, 1989). What will be the effect in both community. Hope they can make contact with blacks. By talking with them can give enthusiasm.
- African Americans--Civil rights--History
- Media type
Interviewee: Hayling, R.B.
Interviewee: England, Bill
Interviewee: Dawson, Eugene
Producer: Mascott, Ted
Producing Organization: WGBH Educational Foundation
Production Unit: Radio
Reporter: Conley, T.F.
Reporter: Brown, Jonathan
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Identifier: 64-0037-06-25-001 (WGBH Item ID)
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- APA: Long, Hot Summer '64; Episode Two. Boston, MA: WGBH, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from http://americanarchive.org/catalog/cpb-aacip_15-02c86fs0