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It's up to the president. To say. So. Now these of course are modern in the old deal but today it used to be won by the people. The first one is for me. This is a man from the plain great country between the Mississippi and the Rockies. To me because we all say that in the great fight with the Cheyenne that people living on the plains country are hunted livelihood. He's wearing them
for clothes and you'll find out later I have a buffalo skin. But the rest of his clothing comes from the clothing of a hunter you'll see the enormous gorgeous headdress with which most people are familiar. That's the group that is which you may have trapped himself or he may have found some friend or person with power or may have got those eagle feathers. Then he is sure it is buckskin and it's a beautifully embroidered with porcupine quills. Those long strips down from the shoulders. Yellow actually with red no other colors for a little addition. Then there are a fringe of his leggings are also a buckskin and they have long strips of colored porcupine quills and the moccasin buckskins with the buffalo skin. So later we're going to hear that Marcus and not all the same that anybody who knows anything about Indians
can differentiate a little among the kind of moccasins. Now Next comes a girl from the New Mexico I will call her blue flower. Her people are a corn mazes farm entirely different from the hunters of the plains a different kind of life. She is wearing a dress you know they have been cut before the whites case it would have been cotton raised by the people themselves. After the Spaniards came to the to our southwest they brought their sheep and then the pueblo people very early learned to raise and share so that I dress is a square blanket made of sheep. But the people themselves the men as it happened not the women. And just said which is red and green. In a very complicated grading technique and then she has been
done up in various styles according to whether she was married or single but today is ready for a ceremony hanging down and she didn't mention I believe that she's not wearing moccasins. People needn't think that all India is one market and we'll be hearing later. The thumb had an impact. People did when they were doing it but most of the time the women with their foot. Now we get the third one and she's from a different part of the country and a different way of life. This is to say from the coast of Washington and the Pacific. Now people were not even hundreds or farmers they were fishermen because in her country the rivers almost. People could death they should know within two or three months and dry the face so that they'd have food for all the rest of the year. Therefore of course we don't find cloth here and we don't find it. Because the costume that she wears is made of the
root or else the branches of trees lit up extremely by her head I believe she borrowed that from a tribe a little further north it is made to look through you see look at all it is fine if you can see it as that. People jumped in and out of canoes and waded in the water half the time so that they certainly could have used the book. Given that two enemies werry well then that's three very different kinds of in the hunting people. The farming people and the fishing people and then we go on with the pictures of various Indian tribes. We can see how extremely different they are in all their ways of living
and how how they have the way of getting their food influenced their houses and make clothing. Because as you see here and also their social habits and perhaps their idea of what their spirits were like. You. Know that they not only were different in ways of living but in language. I've been asked sometimes about the Indian language do I speak the Indian language and then I have to answer which is a hundred and thirty north of Mexico do you mean. Why do you think I speak it out American too. And there were all those that many different Indian languages. Now let's hear the Indians and see what we think of that. The two enemies would you say something in your own language. Return or three or more per quarter do people do it and he said most people live in your own home. Thought you were. Did you understand it. And culture but
would you say something in a list now. Did you understand that. And now the fact is of course that the Indians did not understand each other their languages were not written but the Greek students among the white people have been analyzing them and writing them. Certainly they haven't got them all written yet and they have grouped the Indian languages into six great family. Now Family doesn't mean that the people in it all thought the same language it means they spoke a similar one like Italian Portuguese. Similar with a general language structure. There are six. Language families of that sort in North America and that gives you just to get a picture of. The next
great stretch of Athabaskan. The past year really belonged to this group but they're to be found down here. All the way across the continent and then there must be and that includes Iroquoian. And taken men their little group. Now that means that the people who spoke related languages must have lived together at one time spoke the same language and then over a period bred apart then their language is rather different just as the European languages got different. Well then our next question is how did all this happen. How do these Indians get where we were Columbus and his people found them and how did they spread in this way. That's a great question that isn't completely
decided but the Indian to enemies. What do your people say they are our age and where they come from. We would know more. And do they say where that water was. Now I'm not going to tell people as I've mentioned before they were used to seeing the plant and the picture they made was that people had come out of the way to plan that they had climbed up from and finally got up into the sunlight. But they don't say where that happened. Or sometimes they say it happened right where they are. Which we happen to know some of the relic couldn't have couldn't be exactly so. Do you know people say. He came from from birth. Well that doesn't help us either.
So how is generally agreed that did not originate in North America even though the birds in the water that speak of may have been in North America. For perhaps a million years more or less I have to qualify all those touch statements. People are human. But the people I. Met.
About that time. At that time. Here you can map that six miles. But the fact that.
People have had. Much to say about it. Is that. Changes. We know that during that time maybe it was a shorter time down from the north end of America and at the greatest extent that North America looked at me at the height of the ice ages. Now that I can continue the ice melt we find even find coal in Greenland which of course means a large vegetation.
I mean that within Alaska and we find the Greenland ice cap melted and came down again. Then it receded then it came down again. Now at the fourth down that's the time we begin to think of mankind and some of his movement that also had some little advances and recession and a map will show you what happened at the end of the four that that. Now that they're around Hudson Bay and Eastern Canada there is a flight that means. Then you see the vertical strip of flight which means the rock had completely covered with snow and ice. Probably then you see the Sierras toward the coast. You can't see too well. There is an Alaska but the high mountain there were glaciated. But if you look at the black in the white show that was a good deal of black which means that. Now people that saw it in Siberia and in Alaska it's also possible
a lot of discussion as to just how it happened. It's possible that there was so much water pinned up in the mountains and in the glaciers that the sea was very much shallower and that therefore Bering Strait lost a great deal of its water. Now in order to lose all the water that separates good only had less than 200 people. And it's probable that that did happen and that there was a sort of land bridge between those two time we'll say around 20000 years ago though I mustn't be quoted on that. The facts change when almost every new bit of data. At least we do imagine that primitive people moved across from ancient Siberia into engined Alaska. And when they got there they must have found they came across because of hunting. They didn't just go off exploring primitive people were too busy getting a living to do that. So they came following to get
there. And when they got to central Alaska where we thought. We saw the empty black part they found a magnificent animal. We have no more now. Here is a very rather imagine his picture. Perfect. The most important one of them were enormous big creatures related to elephants. And this one has great. But he has a huge coat that protected him from the northern ice box. You can't see them very well but they are back there in the background and then just up in the north and the mountain sheep and go. Really it was a magnificent paradise but of course they had primitive weapons with which to get to that in a moment.
Now they had not come in a great marching across the land bridge and then deploying right into various family groups. After camping perhaps to find that the game looks good. Just over there and they would move in and they'd move again. Until we can imagine that there was quite a population in Alaska and that the population was coming from Siberia. So some of the people began to move the move of course to the Rockies and there's another rock. And then it is branching. Probably what happened of course over a period of that so that people reach that part of America which is glaciated. This picture but
ultimately and they got across. The Cross and into South America. When they got to New Mexico and Arizona you might have seen on the map that they're black there. But of course they had been just that much precipitation in that part of the country instead of being snow it was rain so that barren place that they can use it to set off rockets and atomic bombs with no danger to animals or people at that time it was a country of trees. This picture a little bit. California where we have found the remains of ancient creatures and then another man. But this time he has Harry and
you can see the other animals but one is a saber toothed tiger. That famous great animal which disappeared long ago won the lion. Then there was a horse. The work horses in America in that very day they disappeared we don't know. Then. Again this was a hunting paradise and the Indian the Indian ancestors must have had pretty good meat. Here we have methods of hunting the map. He wouldn't be possible to kill a man just up to him with a spear in him very fierce an enormous creature. But what they did was to dig a pit and had to be an extremely large pet of course that was going to hold a memory. Stick across it and the great creature came along he would like to slip through. And then they could come with their primitive knives and possibly
cut him up. One with an air I said before it quite an improved method of warfare that came along. We're sort of a man. But the men didn't. And part of something like equipment. Like. The man holding out his right hand. And then there is the Lincoln. And along that twice the length and then disappear into one of the engine that will. Like. Implements have been found.
More on this of course. Don't take my absolutely black and white but pretty good reason for saying what we do. These are some of the most ancient point. They look rather rough situation that it seems agreed that they are at least twenty thousand years old and that in New Mexico people had got down to New Mexico. We're going after these magnificent animals. Twenty thousand years ago pretty obvious they came across before that. Here was a much larger one down in the place they were going then after great animals like bison probably. Then here is a very beautiful one. This is the famous fall from point which everybody if you and if you could look at it closely tonight and then it had to go down the middle. So that
could be it could be put in that. That made it about 10000 years ago. Geologist the paleontologist can work it out. And then the weapons yet are quite beautiful. Be a point again in the play perhaps. But. Now all of the people who have been mostly east of the Rockies in the plain country where the great great thing. We know some people may have come with the rock between markers in the air. People of course but also more than one plant because equipment. It's been broken
so that it has a little place in another. Part of America South America. Before I show you the map to see how that might have been and quite often in Asia and we found the same sort of thing here by people hunting
but they could with limbs of trees they could perhaps. They could. Do a little thing. It looked like a crude has a place to play with the other things. So when you think a man for something to work with. Now people trace. America. America America America
America but. America but now. Big. They wouldn't do it.
Many. South America and. The United States. Some of these people had the right. But this country and
we can talk about that. But those who could not or did not go on. And the great difference between the villages they couldn't could couldn't have couldn't it. In the next. Country story to their children he had finished her story and was going to tell the children to go to sleep. You can go to.
Redman's America
Episode Number
How They Came
Producing Organization
Rocky Mountain PBS
Contributing Organization
Rocky Mountain PBS (Denver, Colorado)
Library of Congress (Washington, District of Columbia)
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Many anthropologists believe that the ancestors of our Indians came to North America some 25,000 years ago, crossing from Siberia over the Bering Straits into Alaska. These ancient people were hunters, and used their flint-throwing spears to attack beasts as formidable as the hairy mammoth. Bones of these animals, as well as the heads of these early weapons, have been discovered from Alaska as far south as New Mexico. (Description adapted from documents in the NET Microfiche)
Redmans America represents the combined efforts of museums, universities, anthropologists and the Indians of America themselves to give television audiences an accurate portrait of our oldest inhabitants. The histories, languages, customs and crafts of tribes stretching from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and from the Great Plains to the seacoast of the Northwest are the subject of this series, which presents to the viewer their artifacts, their rituals, and their own descriptions of their lives. Thanks to the rich diversity of artifacts available, and to the flexibility of the television medium, the episodes emphasize chiefly the material aspects of Indian culture, although their social and theological institutions, and their reactions to the white settlers of the region, also are portrayed. The series uses films and artifacts from Chappell House, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Smithsonian Institution and is the anthropologists story of the material culture of the American Indian from his first appearance on the North American continent down to the coming of the white man. Each episode follows a general format of lecture and illustration, making use of authentic artifacts of the American Indian. Dr. Ruth Underhill, host for the series, is a nationally recognized authority in the field of American anthropology and Indian studies. She is the author of four books about the Indians, and has been active on behalf of tribes and Indian families throughout the West and Southwest. Her experience with television as a classroom medium dates from 1956, when she first began lecturing to a television audience on a variety of topics in anthropology. The 30 half-hour episodes that comprise this series were originally recorded on kinescope. (Description adapted from documents in the NET Microfiche)
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Social Issues
Race and Ethnicity
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Moving Image
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Host: Underhill, Ruth
Producing Organization: Rocky Mountain PBS
AAPB Contributor Holdings
Rocky Mountain PBS (KRMA)
Identifier: 001.75.2011.0853 (Stations Archived Memories (SAM))
Format: U-matic
Duration: 00:30:00?
Rocky Mountain PBS (KRMA)
Identifier: 001.75.2011.0848 (Stations Archived Memories (SAM))
Format: U-matic
Duration: 00:29:19 & 00:29:10
Library of Congress
Identifier: 2327290-1 (MAVIS Item ID)
Format: 16mm film
Generation: Copy: Access
Color: B&W
Indiana University Libraries Moving Image Archive
Identifier: [request film based on title] (Indiana University)
Format: 16mm film
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Chicago: “Redman's America; 1; How They Came,” 1960-06-19, Rocky Mountain PBS, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC, accessed April 7, 2020,
MLA: “Redman's America; 1; How They Came.” 1960-06-19. Rocky Mountain PBS, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Web. April 7, 2020. <>.
APA: Redman's America; 1; How They Came. Boston, MA: Rocky Mountain PBS, Library of Congress, American Archive of Public Broadcasting (WGBH and the Library of Congress), Boston, MA and Washington, DC. Retrieved from